- Slides: 23
Chapter 7 Creating High Quality Environments © 2015 Cengage Learning.
Discussion • What type of child care center/early childhood educational center would you want your child to attend? • Can you tell the difference from a high quality center from a low quality center?
Introduction • Children’s growth & development are constantly being shaped by the environment that they are in. • Growth is enhanced by… - nurturing & responsive care - drug, violence, excessive traffic, pollution free communities • Intellectual & psychological development is fostered through… - environments providing new challenges - opportunities for learning - positive social interactions
Identifying High Quality Programs • Children enrolled in high quality care show long-term gains in: - language - cognitive skills: skills & abilities bases on knowledge & thought process) - improved readiness for school - fewer problem behaviors • Many families do nor know how to determine the quality of a program • What features to look for? • Parents feel uncomfortable questioning the teachers. • May not find a high quality program in their area.
What Determines Program Quality? • Researchers have identified three factors that are associated with quality programs: – Small group size – Low teacher/child ratios (fewer children per teacher) – Teacher preparation and qualifications: teachers who have advanced educational training in ECE & child development. – Physical facilities – philosophy – Developmentally appropriate goals/objectives – Nutritious meals – Opportunities for family involvement – Diversity – Health services – Toys & educational activities/ are they developmentally appropriate?
Locating High-Quality Programs • Resource and referral agencies (R&Rs) are located throughout the country to assist families in locating early childhood programs. • See maps on website • Families must determine which program best meets their unique needs.
Program Accreditation • Several professional organizations recognize exceptional early childhood programs • Accreditation: the process of certifying an individual/program as having met certain specified requirements. – Each organization has established its own standards and review criteria. – Participation is usually voluntary and requires a combination of self-study and program review. – Lasts 3 years
National Association for the Education of Young Children A. Children C. Family and Community Partners Standards under this group focus on the advancement of children’s learning and development. The two standards focus on relevant partnerships the program establishes with both families and the community. Standard 1: Relationships Standard 7: Families Standard 2: Curriculum Standard 8: Community Relationships Standard 3: Teaching Standard 4: Assessment of Child Progress D. Program Administration Standard 5: Health The final two standards focus on the program's physical environment and the leadership and management provided by the program administration. B. Teachers The focus for this standard is on the qualifications, knowledge, and professional commitment of a program’s teaching staff. Standard 6: Teachers Standard 9: Physical Environment Standard 10: Leadership and Management
Early Childhood Program Licensure • Licensing: process of certifying an individual/program as having met certain specified requirements. • There are no uniform national standards. – Caring for Our Children attempts to address this problem by providing a set of research-based recommendations. • Each state establishes and enforces its own child care licensing regulations.
Licensing regulations/rules serve 2 purposes 1. Monitor the environment and program safety to protect children from - physical harm - psychological harm 2. Programs that are licensed are less likely to face negligence charges
Licensing • Areas that are commonly examined as part of the licensing process include: – Teacher qualifications – Staffing ratios – Group size – Curriculum plans – Emergency preparation and services (e. g. , plans, policies, protection)
Licensing • If you are operating a child care center/home child care w/out a license in California… - misdemeanor - fined $200 a day - can face criminal charges from your local law enforcement agency. • Some early childhood programs are exempt from state licensing requirements.
License-exempt child care • child care program that can legally operate without a license, and licensing standards do not apply to them. 1. Relatives of a child/children being cared for (i. e. , spouses, parents, adult siblings, aunts, uncles, first cousins, step-relatives and grandparents) Any arrangement providing care for children of only one family in addition to the operator’s own children. 2. Cooperative arrangements (Co-Ops) between parents for the care of their children when Caregivers do not receive payment for services. Parents rotate responsibility for care of all of the children equally among themselves. Every caregiver is a parent, legal guardian, or adult relative of at least one child in the Co-Op. No more than 12 children are cared for at any given time by any provider/parent. 3. Public/private schools 4. Before and after school programs/extended day care programs operated by public/private schools. 5. Recreation programs operated by Boy and Girl Scouts, Boys and Girls Club, YMCA, and similar organizations Public recreation programs 6. Certain school parenting programs or adult education child care programs.
Learn More about the Licensing Regulations in Your State Click on the link below to locate state licensing regulations: National Resource Center for Health & Safety in Child Care & Early Education http: //nrckids. org/STATES/states. htm
Features of High Quality Programs 1. Teacher qualifications 2. Staffing ratios (1: 8) 3 -6 year olds 3. Group size and composition -age of children -group size per classroom - maximum enrollment per program -special population of children (behavioral problems, special needs, 4. Teacher –child ratios 5. Program Curriculum Is it Developmentally Appropriate? Does it focus on the whole child? (physical, cognitive, motor, socialemotional, language, self-care) 6. Health services -written policies/procedures -maintaining comprehensive health/safety records -emergency response plan - clean indoor/outdoor environments - emergency contact information - fire/storm drills
Indoor Safety • When creating safe indoor environments, special attention should be given to: – – – Building location and adequate space Room arrangement Building security (Teacher Checklist 7 -2) Fire safety and evacuation plans (Teacher Checklist 7 -3) Bathroom facilities and sanitation Lighting, ventilation, air quality (Teacher Checklist 7 -4)
Outdoor Safety • When outdoor environments are carefully planned and supervised they provide all children with unique learning opportunities. – Safe outdoor play areas reduce the risk of unintentional injury and liability issues. – They are also less stressful for teachers to monitor.
Outdoor Safety • Planning safe outdoor environments requires that special attention be given to: – Providing adequate space to accommodate children’s active play (minimum 75 -100 square feet per child) – Designing play areas so they are easy to supervise
Outdoor Safety – Selecting play equipment that is developmentally appropriate, safely constructed, properly installed and accessible to all children (Teacher Checklist 7 -5, Table 7 -4) – Pool (cryptosporidiosis), sandbox (feces, glass), older wooden climbing structures (chromated copper arsenic) – Eliminating poisonous plants and vegetation – Maintaining play equipment and surface materials in safe condition – Supervising children’s play at all times
Transportation • When programs transport children: – Children’s safety must always be a major concern. – Programs should be aware of insurance and liability issues. – Vehicles should be equipped with proper safety seats, seat restraints, and fire extinguisher.
Transportation Facts • Motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death for children under 15 years in the U. S. (National Center for Health Statistics, 2012). • In 2011, -1283 children died as occupants in motor vehicle crashes -207, 432 were injured • That’s an average of 3. 5 deaths and 568 injuries each day (National Center for Injury Prevention & Control, 2013).
Transportation Facts Child safety seats and lap/shoulder seat belts reduced the risk of death in passenger cars by 71% for infants, and by 54% for toddlers ages 1 to 4 years (NHTSA 2012).
Transportation • The use of privately-owned vehicles should be discouraged to limit a program’s liability. If they are used: – Drivers should possess the appropriate license and be insured. – Vehicles should be inspected for safety. – Travel plans should be developed, reviewed, left with the director, and followed precisely.