Chapter 7 Consumer Learning Consumer Behavior Ninth Edition

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Chapter 7 Consumer Learning Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Schiffman & Kanuk Copyright 2007 by

Chapter 7 Consumer Learning Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Schiffman & Kanuk Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall

Chapter Outline • • The Elements of Consumer Learning Behavioral Learning Theories Cognitive Learning

Chapter Outline • • The Elements of Consumer Learning Behavioral Learning Theories Cognitive Learning Theory Measures of Consumer Learning Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 -2

Learning • The process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and

Learning • The process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior • Marketers must teach consumers: – where to buy – how to use – how to maintain – how to dispose of products Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 -3

Learning Theories • Behavioral Theories • Cognitive Theories – Based on observable behaviors (responses)

Learning Theories • Behavioral Theories • Cognitive Theories – Based on observable behaviors (responses) that occur as the result of exposure to stimuli – Learning based on mental information processing – Often in response to problem solving Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 -4

Behavioral Learning Theories • Classical Conditioning • Instrumental Conditioning • Modeling or Observational Learning

Behavioral Learning Theories • Classical Conditioning • Instrumental Conditioning • Modeling or Observational Learning Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 -8

Classical Conditioning Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall A behavioral learning theory according to which

Classical Conditioning Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone. 7 -9

Models of Classical Conditioning Figure 7 -2 a Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7

Models of Classical Conditioning Figure 7 -2 a Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 10

Figure 7 -2 b Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 11

Figure 7 -2 b Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 11

Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning Basic Concepts • Repetition • Stimulus generalization • Stimulus

Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning Basic Concepts • Repetition • Stimulus generalization • Stimulus discrimination Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall • Increases the association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus • Slows the pace of forgetting • Advertising wearout is a problem 7 - 13

Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning Basic Concepts • Repetition • Stimulus generalization • Stimulus

Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning Basic Concepts • Repetition • Stimulus generalization • Stimulus discrimination Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall • Having the same response to slightly different stimuli • Helps “me-too” products to succeed • Useful in product extensions 7 - 14

Discussion Question Stimulus Generalization • How does CVS Pharmacy use stimulus generalization for their

Discussion Question Stimulus Generalization • How does CVS Pharmacy use stimulus generalization for their private brands? • Do you think it is effective? • Should this be allowable? weblink Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 15

Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning Basic Concepts • Repetition • Stimulus generalization • Stimulus

Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning Basic Concepts • Repetition • Stimulus generalization • Stimulus discrimination Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall • Selection of a specific stimulus from similar stimuli • This discrimination is the basis of positioning which looks for unique ways to fill needs 7 - 16

Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall A behavioral theory of learning based

Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors. 7 - 17

Types of Reinforcement • • Positive Negative Forgetting Extinction i. Won Video Copyright 2007

Types of Reinforcement • • Positive Negative Forgetting Extinction i. Won Video Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 18

A Model of Instrumental Conditioning Figure 7 -10 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7

A Model of Instrumental Conditioning Figure 7 -10 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 19

Observational Learning Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall A process by which individuals observe how

Observational Learning Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall A process by which individuals observe how others behave in response to certain stimuli and reinforcements. Also known as modeling or vicarious learning. 7 - 21

The consumer observes a positive response by two teens. Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall

The consumer observes a positive response by two teens. Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 22

Cognitive Learning Theory Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Holds that the kind of learning

Cognitive Learning Theory Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Holds that the kind of learning most characteristic of human beings is problem solving, which enables individuals to gain some control over their environment. 7 - 23

Information Processing • Relates to cognitive ability and the complexity of the information •

Information Processing • Relates to cognitive ability and the complexity of the information • Individuals differ in imagery – their ability to form mental images which influences recall Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 24

Information Processing and Memory Stores - Figure 7. 14 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall

Information Processing and Memory Stores - Figure 7. 14 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 25

Information Processing • Movement from short-term to long-term storage depends on – Rehearsal –

Information Processing • Movement from short-term to long-term storage depends on – Rehearsal – Encoding Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 26

Retention • Information is stored in long-term memory – Episodically: by the order in

Retention • Information is stored in long-term memory – Episodically: by the order in which it is acquired – Semantically: according to significant concepts • Total package of associations is called a schema Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 28

Table 7. 1 Models of Cognitive Learning Promotional Tricompetent Model Sequential Stages of Processing

Table 7. 1 Models of Cognitive Learning Promotional Tricompetent Model Sequential Stages of Processing Attention Interest Desire Action Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Cognitive Affective Conative Decision. Making Model Innovation Adoption Model Awareness Knowledge Awareness Innovation Decision Process Knowledge Interest Evaluation Persuasion Purchase Trial Decision Postpurchase Adoption Confirmation Evaluation 7 - 29

Issues in Involvement Theory • Consumer Relevance • Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion

Issues in Involvement Theory • Consumer Relevance • Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion • Measure of Involvement Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 30

Consumer Relevance • Involvement depends on degree of personal relevance. • High involvement is:

Consumer Relevance • Involvement depends on degree of personal relevance. • High involvement is: – Very important to the consumer – Provokes extensive problem solving Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 31

Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion • Central route to persuasion – For high

Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion • Central route to persuasion – For high involvement purchases – Requires cognitive processing • Peripheral route to persuasion – Low involvement – Consumer less motivated to think – Learning through repetition, visual cues, and holistic perception Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 32

Peripheral route to persuasion Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 33

Peripheral route to persuasion Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 33

Measures of Consumer Learning • Recognition and Recall Measures – Aided and Unaided Recall

Measures of Consumer Learning • Recognition and Recall Measures – Aided and Unaided Recall • Cognitive Responses to Advertising • Attitudinal and Behavioral Measures of Brand Loyalty Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 34

Harley-Davidson Has Strong Brand Loyalty weblink Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 36

Harley-Davidson Has Strong Brand Loyalty weblink Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall 7 - 36