Chapter 7 Attitudes and Attitude Change Influencing Thoughts

  • Slides: 76
Download presentation
Chapter 7 Attitudes and Attitude Change: Influencing Thoughts and Feelings Copyright © 2016, 2013,

Chapter 7 Attitudes and Attitude Change: Influencing Thoughts and Feelings Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Nature and Origin of Attitudes (1 of 2) People are not neutral observers

The Nature and Origin of Attitudes (1 of 2) People are not neutral observers of the world. They evaluate what they encounter. They form attitudes. Attitudes Evaluation of people, objects, and ideas Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Nature and Origin of Attitudes (2 of 2) Attitudes are made up of

The Nature and Origin of Attitudes (2 of 2) Attitudes are made up of three components: Affective Emotional reaction Behavioral Actions or observable behavior Cognitive Thoughts and beliefs Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Where Do Attitudes Come From? (1 of 2) Genetic origins? Identical twins share more

Where Do Attitudes Come From? (1 of 2) Genetic origins? Identical twins share more attitudes than fraternal twins E. g. , similar attitudes about jazz music Indirect function of our genes Temperament, personality Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Where Do Attitudes Come From? (2 of 2) Social experiences Not all attitudes are

Where Do Attitudes Come From? (2 of 2) Social experiences Not all attitudes are created equally. Though all attitudes have affective, cognitive, and behavioral components, any given attitude can be based more on one type of experience than another. Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Cognitively Based Attitudes An attitude based primarily on people’s beliefs about the properties of

Cognitively Based Attitudes An attitude based primarily on people’s beliefs about the properties of an attitude object Sometimes our attitudes are based primarily on the relevant facts. Example—a car How many miles to the gallon does it get? Does it have side-impact air bags? Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Affectively Based Attitudes (1 of 2) An attitude based more on people’s feelings and

Affectively Based Attitudes (1 of 2) An attitude based more on people’s feelings and values than on their beliefs about the nature of an attitude object Sometimes we simply like a car, regardless of how many miles to the gallon it gets. Occasionally we even feel great about something or someone in spite of having negative beliefs. Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Affectively Based Attitudes (2 of 2) Affectively based attitudes don’t come from examining facts

Affectively Based Attitudes (2 of 2) Affectively based attitudes don’t come from examining facts Values Example—religious, moral beliefs Sensory reaction Example—liking the taste of something Aesthetic reaction Example—admiring lines and color of a car Conditioning Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Classical Conditioning A stimulus that elicits an emotional response is paired with a neutral

Classical Conditioning A stimulus that elicits an emotional response is paired with a neutral stimulus Neutral stimulus takes on the emotional properties of the first stimulus Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Operant Conditioning Freely chosen behaviors increase or decrease when followed by reinforcement or punishment.

Operant Conditioning Freely chosen behaviors increase or decrease when followed by reinforcement or punishment. Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 7. 1 Classical and Operant Conditioning of Attitudes Affectively based attitudes can result

Figure 7. 1 Classical and Operant Conditioning of Attitudes Affectively based attitudes can result from either classical or instrumental conditioning. Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Affectively Based Attitude Similarity Affectively based attitudes are similar to cognitively based attitude but:

Affectively Based Attitude Similarity Affectively based attitudes are similar to cognitively based attitude but: Not a result of rational examination Not governed by logic Often linked to values Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Behaviorally Based Attitudes An attitude based on observations of how one behaves toward an

Behaviorally Based Attitudes An attitude based on observations of how one behaves toward an attitude object Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Self-Perception Theory (Bem, 1972) Sometimes people do not know how they feel until they

Self-Perception Theory (Bem, 1972) Sometimes people do not know how they feel until they see how they behave Can form our attitudes based on our observations of our own behavior • People infer their attitudes from their behavior only under certain conditions: – When initial attitude is weak or ambiguous – When no other plausible explanation for behavior Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Explicit versus Implicit Attitudes (1 of 2) Explicit Attitudes that we consciously endorse and

Explicit versus Implicit Attitudes (1 of 2) Explicit Attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report Implicit Attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times unconscious Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Explicit versus Implicit Attitudes (4 of 2) We have explicit and implicit attitudes about

Explicit versus Implicit Attitudes (4 of 2) We have explicit and implicit attitudes about many things. Not just different races! Example: Students can believe explicitly that they hate math At an implicit level, can have a more positive attitude Measurement Implicit attitudes test (IAT) Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

An Inconsistency Between Attitudes and Behavior Some evidence that attitudes are not good predictors

An Inconsistency Between Attitudes and Behavior Some evidence that attitudes are not good predictors of behavior La. Piere (1934) examined anti-Chinese attitudes and discrimination La. Piere went on cross-country trip with Chinese couple Although prejudice against Chinese was high at this time, only one out of 251 establishments refused service Wrote a letter to each establishment after the trip asking if they would serve a Chinese visitor and over 90% said they would not Several reasons why inconsistency between attitude and behavior Different people responded to survey and served them People’s attitudes could have changed in the months between observation and survey Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Predicting Spontaneous Behaviors Attitudes will predict spontaneous behaviors only when they are highly accessible

Predicting Spontaneous Behaviors Attitudes will predict spontaneous behaviors only when they are highly accessible to people. Attitude Accessibility The strength of the association between an attitude object and a person’s evaluation of that object, measured by the speed with which people can report how they feel about the object Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Predicting Deliberative Behaviors (1 of 3) Theory of Planned Behavior People’s intentions are the

Predicting Deliberative Behaviors (1 of 3) Theory of Planned Behavior People’s intentions are the best predictors of their deliberate behaviors Intentions determined by their attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Predicting Deliberative Behaviors (2 of 3) Specific attitudes Only specific attitudes can be expected

Predicting Deliberative Behaviors (2 of 3) Specific attitudes Only specific attitudes can be expected to predict that behavior Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Predicting Deliberative Behaviors (3 of 3) Subjective norms We also need to measure people’s

Predicting Deliberative Behaviors (3 of 3) Subjective norms We also need to measure people’s subjective norms— their beliefs about how people they care about will view the behavior in question. Perceived behavioral control Intentions are influenced by the ease with which they believe they can perform the behavior. Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The New-Car Decision While some behaviors result from spur-of-the-moment, spontaneous decisions, others emerge from

The New-Car Decision While some behaviors result from spur-of-the-moment, spontaneous decisions, others emerge from more thoughtful processes in which we carefully weigh pros and cons. The theory of planned behavior helps us understand the link between attitudes and these sorts of deliberative behaviors. Source: Hero Images/Getty Images Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Table 7. 1 Specific Attitudes Are Better Predictors of Behavior Attitude Measure Attitude–Behavior Correlation

Table 7. 1 Specific Attitudes Are Better Predictors of Behavior Attitude Measure Attitude–Behavior Correlation Attitude toward birth control 0. 08 Attitude toward birth control pills 0. 32 Attitude toward using birth control pills 0. 53 Attitude toward using birth control pills during the next two years 0. 57 Note: If a correlation is close to 0, it means that there is little to no relationship between the two variables. The closer the correlation is to 1, the stronger the positive relationship between attitudes and behavior. (Adapted from Davidson & Jaccard, 1979) Different groups of women were asked about their attitudes toward birth control. The more specific the question, the better it predicted their actual use of birth control over the next two years. Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 7. 2 Theory of Planned Behavior According to this theory, the best predictors

Figure 7. 2 Theory of Planned Behavior According to this theory, the best predictors of people’s planned, deliberative behaviors are their behavioral intentions. The best predictors of their intentions are their attitudes toward the specific behavior, their subjective norms, and their perceived behavioral control of the behavior. (Adapted from Ajzen, 1985) Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Specific Attitudes Theory of Planned Behavior Predicts that more specific attitudes better predict behavior

Specific Attitudes Theory of Planned Behavior Predicts that more specific attitudes better predict behavior Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

How Do Attitudes Change? 7. 3 How do internal and external factors lead to

How Do Attitudes Change? 7. 3 How do internal and external factors lead to attitude change? Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Attitude Changes and Social Influence When attitudes change, it is often due to social

Attitude Changes and Social Influence When attitudes change, it is often due to social influence This is why social psychologists are interested! Attitudes are social phenomena. Sometimes attitudes change dramatically over short periods of time. For example, Americans’ approval rating of President Obama went up and down during his presidency. Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Changing Attitudes by Changing Behavior People experience dissonance: When their image is threatened. When

Changing Attitudes by Changing Behavior People experience dissonance: When their image is threatened. When they cannot explain behavior with external justifications Leads to finding internal justification for behavior Brings your attitude and your behavior closer together Equals attitude change! Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Persuasive Communications and Attitude Change (1 of 2) Communication (e. g. , a speech

Persuasive Communications and Attitude Change (1 of 2) Communication (e. g. , a speech or television ad) advocating a particular side of an issue How should you construct a message so that it would really change people’s attitudes? Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Persuasive Communications and Attitude Change (2 of 2) Yale Attitude Change Approach The study

Persuasive Communications and Attitude Change (2 of 2) Yale Attitude Change Approach The study of the conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages “Who said what to whom” Who: the source of the communication What: the nature of the communication Whom: the nature of the audience Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 7. 3 The Yale Attitude Change Approach Researchers at Yale University initiated research

Figure 7. 3 The Yale Attitude Change Approach Researchers at Yale University initiated research on what makes a persuasive communication effective, focusing on “who said what to whom. ” Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion (1 of 4) Elaboration Likelihood Model An

The Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion (1 of 4) Elaboration Likelihood Model An explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion (2 of 4) Elaboration Likelihood Model Central

The Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion (2 of 4) Elaboration Likelihood Model Central route When people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication Peripheral route When people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics People do not elaborate on the arguments Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 7. 4 The Elaboration Likelihood Model The elaboration likelihood model describes how people

Figure 7. 4 The Elaboration Likelihood Model The elaboration likelihood model describes how people change their attitudes when they hear persuasive communications. Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Motivation to Pay Attention to the Arguments (1 of 2) Personal relevance of

The Motivation to Pay Attention to the Arguments (1 of 2) Personal relevance of the topic How important is the topic to a person’s well-being? More personally relevant, pay more attention. Central route Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Motivation to Pay Attention to the Arguments (2 of 2) People high in

The Motivation to Pay Attention to the Arguments (2 of 2) People high in the need for cognition Form attitudes through central route People low in the need for cognition Rely on peripheral cues Need for Cognition A personality variable reflecting the extent to which people engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activities Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 7. 5 Effects of Personal Relevance on Type of Attitude Change The higher

Figure 7. 5 Effects of Personal Relevance on Type of Attitude Change The higher the number, the more people agreed with the persuasive communication. Left panel: When the issue was highly relevant, people were swayed by the quality of the arguments more than the expertise of the speaker. This is the central route to persuasion. Right panel: When the issue was low in relevance, people were swayed by the expertise of the speaker more than the quality of the arguments. This is the peripheral route to persuasion. (Based on data in Petty, Cacioppo, & Goldman, 1981) Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Ability to Pay Attention to the Arguments When people are unable to pay

The Ability to Pay Attention to the Arguments When people are unable to pay close attention to the arguments, they are swayed more by peripheral cues Status of communicator Liking or trusting communicator Someone with a weak argument can still be persuasive if they distract their audience Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

How to Achieve Long-Lasting Attitude Change People who base their attitudes on a careful

How to Achieve Long-Lasting Attitude Change People who base their attitudes on a careful analysis of the arguments will be: More likely to maintain this attitude More likely to behave consistently with this attitude More resistant to counter-persuasion Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Fear-Arousing Communications (1 of 3) Persuasive messages that attempt to change people’s attitudes by

Fear-Arousing Communications (1 of 3) Persuasive messages that attempt to change people’s attitudes by arousing their fears Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Fear-Arousing Communications (2 of 3) Strong amounts of fear fail if they overwhelm people.

Fear-Arousing Communications (2 of 3) Strong amounts of fear fail if they overwhelm people. Become defensive Deny importance of threat Cannot think rationally about issue Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Fear-Arousing Communications (3 of 3) Do fear-arousing communications work? Moderate amounts of fear work

Fear-Arousing Communications (3 of 3) Do fear-arousing communications work? Moderate amounts of fear work best Provide information on how to reduce fear Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Fear and Smoking Ads The FDA has tried to implement guidelines to require all

Fear and Smoking Ads The FDA has tried to implement guidelines to require all cigarette packs sold in the United States to display pictures that warn about the dangers of smoking, such as the one shown here. Do you think that this ad would scare people into quitting? Source: UPI/FDA/Landov Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 7. 6 Effects of Fear Appeals on Attitude Change People were shown a

Figure 7. 6 Effects of Fear Appeals on Attitude Change People were shown a scary film about the effects of smoking, instructions about how to stop smoking, or both. Those who were shown both had the biggest reduction in the number of cigarettes the smoked. (Adapted from Leventhal, Watts, & Pagano, 1967) Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Emotions as a Heuristic (1 of 4) Heuristic–Systematic Model of Persuasion An explanation of

Emotions as a Heuristic (1 of 4) Heuristic–Systematic Model of Persuasion An explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: Systematically processing the merits of the arguments When using peripheral route Use mental shortcuts (heuristics) e. g. , “Experts are always right” Use emotions as heuristic Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Emotions as a Heuristic (2 of 4) Use emotions and moods as heuristics to

Emotions as a Heuristic (2 of 4) Use emotions and moods as heuristics to determine attitudes “How do I feel about it? ” If we feel good must have a positive attitude about object If we feel bad thumbs down! Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Emotions as a Heuristic (3 of 4) Problem with the “How do I feel

Emotions as a Heuristic (3 of 4) Problem with the “How do I feel about it? ” heuristic Can make mistakes about what is causing our mood Misattribute feelings created by one source to another If so, people might make a bad decision Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Emotions as a Heuristic (4 of 4) Advertisers and retailers want to create good

Emotions as a Heuristic (4 of 4) Advertisers and retailers want to create good feelings about their product Pair product with appealing music or showing pleasant images hope people will attribute feelings to the product Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Cartoon Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Cartoon Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Coming Climate Change Disaster Many advertising campaigns attempt to use emotions to persuade

The Coming Climate Change Disaster Many advertising campaigns attempt to use emotions to persuade people. How might an ad about climate change that makes use of foreboding weather images such as this one have different effects on people than an ad emphasizing scientific data? Source: Dark. One/Shutterstock Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Emotion and Different Types of Attitudes (1 of 2) Several studies have shown that

Emotion and Different Types of Attitudes (1 of 2) Several studies have shown that it is best to “fight fire with fire”: If an attitude is cognitively based Try to change it with rational arguments If it is affectively based Try to change it with emotional appeals Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Emotion and Different Types of Attitudes (2 of 2) Some ads stress the objective

Emotion and Different Types of Attitudes (2 of 2) Some ads stress the objective merits of a product Other ads stress emotions and values Price, reliability, efficiency Sex, beauty, youthfulness Which kind of ad is most effective? Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 7. 7 Effects of Affective and Cognitive Information on Affectively and Cognitively Based

Figure 7. 7 Effects of Affective and Cognitive Information on Affectively and Cognitively Based Attitudes When people had cognitively based attitudes, cognitively based advertisements that stressed the utilitarian aspects of the products worked best. When people had more affectively based attitudes, affectively based advertisements that stressed values and social identity worked best. The higher the number, the more favorable thoughts people listed about the products after reading the advertisements. (Based on data in Shavitt, 1990) Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Attitude Change and the Body posture plays a significant role in attitude change (Brin

Attitude Change and the Body posture plays a significant role in attitude change (Brin ol & Petty, 2009, 2012) Cartoons rated as more funny when holding an object between one’s teeth (mimicking a smile) compared to holding it between one’s lips (mimicking a frown) (Dzokoto et al. , 2014; Strack, Martin, & Stepper, 1998) Nodding or shaking one’s head while listening to strong or weak arguments also affects attitude change (Brin ol & Petty, 2003) Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 7. 8 Effects of Confidence in One’s Thoughts on Persuasion People who nodded

Figure 7. 8 Effects of Confidence in One’s Thoughts on Persuasion People who nodded their heads up and down, compared to those who shook their heads from side to side, had greater confidence in their thoughts about the message (e. g. , “Wow, this is really convincing” when the arguments were strong, and “Wow, this is really dumb” when the arguments were weak). (Figure adapted from Briñol & Petty, 2003) Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Power of Advertising 7. 4 How does advertising work to change people’s attitudes?

The Power of Advertising 7. 4 How does advertising work to change people’s attitudes? Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Mad Men at Work The successful advertiser, like TV’s Don Draper, can use social

Mad Men at Work The successful advertiser, like TV’s Don Draper, can use social psychological principles of attitude change to make any product seem attractive, personally relevant, useful, and even necessary. Source: Handout/Mct/Newscom Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Advertising Can Change Attitudes People more influenced by advertising than they think. Split cable

Advertising Can Change Attitudes People more influenced by advertising than they think. Split cable market tests Advertisers work with cable companies and stores Show commercial to randomly selected group of people and keep track of purchases Results of over 300 of these reveal ads effective, especially for new products Public health campaigns Meta-analysis on ads and substance use among youths encouraging Television and radio better than print ads Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

How Advertising Works Many take emotional approach of attitude change Little difference between brands

How Advertising Works Many take emotional approach of attitude change Little difference between brands Associate product with excitement, youth, sexual attraction Attitudes that are more cognitively based: Personally relevant? Yes, then use logical, fact-based arguments No, might use peripheral route Peripheral route leads to attitude change that is not long lasting Goal to make product personally relevant. Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Do Brides Have Better Breath? This ad is one of the most famous in

Do Brides Have Better Breath? This ad is one of the most famous in the history of advertising. Although today it is easy to see how sexist and offensive it is, when it appeared in the 1930 s, it succeeded in making a problem (bad breath) personally relevant by playing on people’s fears and insecurities about personal relationships. Can you think of contemporary ads that try to raise similar fears? Source: The Advertising Archives Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Subliminal Advertising: A Form of Mind Control? Subliminal Messages = words or pictures that

Subliminal Advertising: A Form of Mind Control? Subliminal Messages = words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may nevertheless influence people’s judgments, attitudes, and behavior There is no evidence that the types of subliminal messages encountered in everyday life have any influence on people’s behavior. Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Bush to Gore: Rats During the 2000 U. S. presidential race, George W. Bush

Bush to Gore: Rats During the 2000 U. S. presidential race, George W. Bush aired a television ad about his prescription drug plan, during which the word RATS was visible on the screen for a split second. Do subliminal messages like this one have any effect on people’s attitudes? Source: Bill Greenblat/Newsmakers/Getty Images Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Ice Cubes’ Hidden Messages There is no scientific evidence that implanting sexual images in

Ice Cubes’ Hidden Messages There is no scientific evidence that implanting sexual images in advertising boosts sales of a product. In fact, subliminal advertising is rarely used and is outlawed in many countries. The public is very aware of the subliminal technique, however—so much so that advertisers sometimes poke fun at subliminal messages in their ads. Source: American Association of Advertising Agencies Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Advertising, Stereotypes, and Culture Advertisements transmit cultural stereotypes in their words and images, subtly

Advertising, Stereotypes, and Culture Advertisements transmit cultural stereotypes in their words and images, subtly linking products with desired images. Advertisements can also reinforce and perpetuate stereotypical ways of thinking about social groups. Advertising both reflects and shapes the biases present in our society, as demonstrated by the divergent responses to a 2013 Cheerios ad featuring an interracial family. Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Gender Stereotypes and Expectations (1 of 2) Gender Roles = societal beliefs—such as those

Gender Stereotypes and Expectations (1 of 2) Gender Roles = societal beliefs—such as those conveyed by media and other sources—regarding how men and women are expected to behave Gender stereotypes are particularly pervasive in advertising imagery. Example: Women depicted as dependent Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Gender Stereotypes and Expectations (2 of 2) Ads’ depiction of female bodies Images of

Gender Stereotypes and Expectations (2 of 2) Ads’ depiction of female bodies Images of unrealistic thinness Associated with body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, low self-esteem, and depression (Slevec & Tiggemann, 2011; Stice et al. , 2011) Ads’ depiction of male bodies Men under same pressure to achieve ideal bodies (Cafri et al. , 2005; Cafri & Thompson, 2004; Grossbard et al. , 2008; Morry & Staska, 2001; Wiseman & Moradi, 2010) Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 7. 9 Portrayals of Women and Men in Television Advertising The ways in

Figure 7. 9 Portrayals of Women and Men in Television Advertising The ways in which women and men are portrayed in television commercials have been examined throughout the world. In every country, women were more likely to be portrayed in powerless, dependent roles than men were. (Based on data in Furnham & Mak, 1999) Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Woman as Mother and Cook Advertising both reflects and shapes the gender roles present

Woman as Mother and Cook Advertising both reflects and shapes the gender roles present in a society. Women in ads are often depicted as wives or mothers–very important roles, of course! But these are usually depictions of women placing the needs of others before their own. Men, on the other hand, are portrayed in a wider range of roles, including many that convey an impression of power over others. Source: best_age_model/Fotolia Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Culture and Advertising Western cultures May base attitudes more on individuality and selfimprovement Ads

Culture and Advertising Western cultures May base attitudes more on individuality and selfimprovement Ads stress independence “It’s easy when you have the right shoes” Eastern cultures May base attitudes more on standing in social group Ads stress interdependence “The shoes for your family” Ads more persuasive when match the thinking styles of target audience Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Resisting Persuasive Messages 7. 5 What are some strategies for resisting efforts at persuasion?

Resisting Persuasive Messages 7. 5 What are some strategies for resisting efforts at persuasion? Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Attitude Inoculation Making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing

Attitude Inoculation Making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Being Alert to Product Placement (1 of 2) Advertisers increasingly place messages about their

Being Alert to Product Placement (1 of 2) Advertisers increasingly place messages about their product in shows Pay the makers of a TV show or movie to incorporate their products into the script Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Being Alert to Product Placement (2 of 2) When people are forewarned, they analyze

Being Alert to Product Placement (2 of 2) When people are forewarned, they analyze what they see and hear more carefully and as a result are likely to avoid attitude change. Without such warnings, people pay little attention to the persuasive attempts and tend to accept them at face value. So before kids watch TV or go off to the movies, it is good to remind them that they are likely to encounter several attempts to change their attitudes. Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Resisting Peer Pressure Peer pressure in adolescence Operates on values and emotions Liking Not

Resisting Peer Pressure Peer pressure in adolescence Operates on values and emotions Liking Not and acceptance by peer group based in logical arguments To make adolescents resistant to attitude change attempts via peer pressure Attitude inoculation that focuses on inoculating against emotional appeals Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

When Persuasion Attempts Boomerang: Reactance Theory People feel their freedom to perform a certain

When Persuasion Attempts Boomerang: Reactance Theory People feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, an unpleasant state of reactance is aroused, which they can reduce by performing the threatened behavior Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Jackie Chan Takes on Big Tobacco A number of interventions designed to prevent smoking

Jackie Chan Takes on Big Tobacco A number of interventions designed to prevent smoking in adolescents have had some success. Many celebrities have lent their names and pictures to the effort, such as actor Jackie Chan, who was the spokesperson for an anti-smoking campaign in Taiwan. Source: Reuters Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved