Chapter 7 Aggression in Sport https www youtube

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Chapter 7 Aggression in Sport https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=WN 5 Vpp. FGasg https:

Chapter 7 Aggression in Sport https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=WN 5 Vpp. FGasg https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=v. Jl. Cd. IOWk. YM

Defining Aggression: Any overt verbal or physical attack that is intended to physically or

Defining Aggression: Any overt verbal or physical attack that is intended to physically or psychologically injure another living organism Violent behaviours: Extreme acts of physical aggression that bear no relationship to the competitive goals of sport. The goal of the action is to harm, not win. Assertive behaviours: Behaviours that occur within the rules of sport and have no intent to harm another living being 2

Defining Aggression or assertive behaviour? Todd Bertuzzi punches Steve Moore from behind, breaking his

Defining Aggression or assertive behaviour? Todd Bertuzzi punches Steve Moore from behind, breaking his neck. Bertuzzi received a 20 game suspension from the NHL, Moore ever played a game after this Physical contact is part of the rules of professional wrestling. 3

Defining Aggression n Hostile aggression: Primary goal is to inflict injury or psychological harm

Defining Aggression n Hostile aggression: Primary goal is to inflict injury or psychological harm on someone else. n Intent is to make the victim suffer, and the reinforcement is the pain and suffering that is caused Jack Tatum 4

Defining Aggression Instrumental aggression: Aggression occurs in the quest of some non -aggressive goal

Defining Aggression Instrumental aggression: Aggression occurs in the quest of some non -aggressive goal -The intent to injure is still present, but the goal is to realize some external goal such as money, victory or n Gordie Howe 5

Defining Aggression Important to take into consideration the sport-specific culture and the unwritten rules

Defining Aggression Important to take into consideration the sport-specific culture and the unwritten rules of the game n https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=eps 0 J 5 3 sb_w n During the 2002 playoffs, Darcy Tucker tore Mike Peca’s ACL by a hard hip check but was not called for a penalty because it was a legal hit 6

Defining Aggression The viewpoint from which one is involved in the behaviour influences an

Defining Aggression The viewpoint from which one is involved in the behaviour influences an individual’s perception of an aggressive act -The outcome of an aggressive act is not as important as the intent of the aggressor -Whether he/she had the intent to harm another individual is more 7 important than if he/she

Bobby Clarke on Kharlamov It had become evident after game one that the Westerners

Bobby Clarke on Kharlamov It had become evident after game one that the Westerners [Team Canada] had to slow him. So they went to work on his ankles. Gary Bergman was credited with one punitive strike. Then, when the series moved to Moscow, Bobby Clarke dealt Kharlamov a fierce slash to the ankle that forced his exit in game seven and rendered him limp for the last decisive encounter – one which Clarke was astonished he even showed up for. “I’m surprised he can walk after that shot I gave him. ”

Theories of Aggression 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Instinct Theory Frustration-Aggression Theory Physiological Theories

Theories of Aggression 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Instinct Theory Frustration-Aggression Theory Physiological Theories Moral Reasoning Theories Social Learning Theories 9

Theories of Aggression Instinct Theory Sigmund Freud (1925) offered the earliest explanation of why

Theories of Aggression Instinct Theory Sigmund Freud (1925) offered the earliest explanation of why humans behave aggressively -Humans are born with certain behavioural tendencies that cause them to act in certain ways -Aggression builds up naturally and is released through a process called 10

Theories of Aggression Instinct Theory -Many scientists suggest that sport provides a better framework

Theories of Aggression Instinct Theory -Many scientists suggest that sport provides a better framework for the learning, rather than venting, of aggression -In 1973, Albert Bandura suggested that the research actually demonstrates that aggression will be maintained, or possibly increase following an aggressive act https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=07 zi. X 2 wgu. Qw&lis t=PL 43 DF 0103 B 0 F 1 D 5 D 2&index=5 11

Theories of Aggression Frustration-Aggression Theory Dollard and colleagues (1939) proposed that aggression is a

Theories of Aggression Frustration-Aggression Theory Dollard and colleagues (1939) proposed that aggression is a natural response to frustration Original hypotheses: a. All aggression is a natural consequence of frustration Zidane headbutt b. All frustration always leads to linked video aggression (click here) 12

Theories of Aggression Physiological Theories n Brain pathology: specific brain areas are responsible for

Theories of Aggression Physiological Theories n Brain pathology: specific brain areas are responsible for aggressive behaviour n Blood chemistry: testosterone may be responsible for aggressive behaviour n Physiological explanations are rarely used to explain the causes of aggression in 13

Theories of Aggression Moral Reasoning Theory Bredemeier and colleagues (1995) viewed aggression as unethical

Theories of Aggression Moral Reasoning Theory Bredemeier and colleagues (1995) viewed aggression as unethical and linked to moral maturity n People are aggressive because they have not matured enough to realize what they are doing is wrong 14

Theories of Aggression Social Learning Theory Bandura (1973) believed that people are aggressive because

Theories of Aggression Social Learning Theory Bandura (1973) believed that people are aggressive because they learn that aggression is beneficial • • • This is the most supported explanation of why aggression occurs Need for aggression a learned response. Aggression begets further aggression. Aggression does not serve as a vent or catharsis against further aggression. Since aggression is not biological & environmental, determinants are alterable, SLT holds optimistic view of reducing aggression. 15

Theories of Aggression n n Parents, teammates, and coaches are the most influential sources

Theories of Aggression n n Parents, teammates, and coaches are the most influential sources of social reinforcement, especially for young athletes Over 50% of young hockey players who engaged in fighting did so because they believed their mother and father would approve (Smith, The influence of parents in youth hockey 16

Measurement of Aggression External Perspectives in Measurement Focused on examining behaviours in sport that

Measurement of Aggression External Perspectives in Measurement Focused on examining behaviours in sport that are generally thought to involve the intent to harm -Game sheets that record penalties are an external measure of aggression, as are videotaping sporting matches Mike Tyson “earbite” 17

Measurement of Aggression External Perspectives There a number of limitations of using external perspectives

Measurement of Aggression External Perspectives There a number of limitations of using external perspectives to measure aggression: 1. 2. Some intentionally harmful behaviours go unnoticed by officials Some legitimate sport behaviours may be inherently aggressive, therefore even though they aren’t recorded as Cuba's Angel Matos deliberately kicked a referee in the face after he was disqualified in a bronze 18 medal match in Beijing

Factors Causing Aggression Personal Factors 1. Female Athletes and Aggression - Female athletes engage

Factors Causing Aggression Personal Factors 1. Female Athletes and Aggression - Female athletes engage in aggressive behaviours similar to male athletes (Bloom & Vanier; Vanier, Bloom & Loughead) -Women tend to engage in more psychological aggression (i. e. verbal taunting and “trash talking”) Three main reasons female ice hockey players use aggression: 1. Protect the goalie 2. Gain a competitive advantage 19

Factors Causing Aggression Shapcott, Bloom and Loughead examined prevalence of aggression in women’s ice

Factors Causing Aggression Shapcott, Bloom and Loughead examined prevalence of aggression in women’s ice hockey Conclusions: Female athletes acted aggressively for 5 reasons 1. To obtain the puck from opponents 2. To prevent the opposition from scoring 3. To protect themselves or teammates 4. To intimidate opponents 5. To hit their opponents All of the players indicated that they never intended to 20 physically injure anyone

Factors Causing Aggression Personal Factors 2. Age and Aggression Cannot conclusively state the direction

Factors Causing Aggression Personal Factors 2. Age and Aggression Cannot conclusively state the direction of the relationship between age and aggression -Some athletes believe they become more aggressive with age as a result of increased confidence -Other studies have shown that the desire to be aggressive peaks during high school and 21

Factors Causing Aggression Personal Factors 3. Physical Size and Aggression Both height and weight

Factors Causing Aggression Personal Factors 3. Physical Size and Aggression Both height and weight are positively correlated with number of aggressive penalties 4. Retaliatory Motives and Aggression Many athletes want to hurt an opponent because the opponent attempted to injure them or a teammate. 22

Factors Causing Aggression Personal Factors 5. Annoyances and Aggression -Some athletes may become aggressive

Factors Causing Aggression Personal Factors 5. Annoyances and Aggression -Some athletes may become aggressive because they are annoyed -Officiating inconsistencies were cited as a prevalent source of annoyance, and the rumination of such feelings can lead to aggression Cognitive neoassociation theory: Focusing on angry feelings primes more angry feelings which increases the possibility of aggressive behaviour 23

Factors Causing Aggression Situational Factors 1. Competitive Situations and Aggression -In competitive situations people

Factors Causing Aggression Situational Factors 1. Competitive Situations and Aggression -In competitive situations people exhibit more aggressive behaviour than in cooperative situations -A competitive situation and rules that allow physical contact further increases aggressive behaviour https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=n Ron Artest climbs into the stands during the 2004 NBA Brawl in Detroit 24

Factors Causing Aggression Situational Factors 2. Frequency of Competition and Aggression increases as the

Factors Causing Aggression Situational Factors 2. Frequency of Competition and Aggression increases as the frequency of competition increases 3. Home field advantage and Aggression Home teams received more aggressive penalties in games they won, visiting 25

Factors Causing Aggression Situational Factors 4. Point Differentials and Aggression -There is no relationship

Factors Causing Aggression Situational Factors 4. Point Differentials and Aggression -There is no relationship between aggressive behaviour and losing in general Aggression does increase in two specific situations: n Losing late in the game n Losing by a large margin 26

Factors Causing Aggression Group Factors 1. Individual’s role and aggression -Certain team members are

Factors Causing Aggression Group Factors 1. Individual’s role and aggression -Certain team members are expected to be more aggressive, often called the team enforcer 2. Group norms and aggression -Aggressive behaviour is dependent on whether or not unfair play is a team norm Montreal native PJ Stock and Stephen Peat face off in one of the most intense, crowd pleasing fights this decade. Video link (click here) 27

Factors Causing Aggression Group Factors 3. Collective efficacy for aggression -Perception of their ability

Factors Causing Aggression Group Factors 3. Collective efficacy for aggression -Perception of their ability to use aggressive behaviour as a strategy during competition 4. Group cohesion and aggression -As teams became more cohesive in pursuit of a common goal, they also became more aggressive 28

Fan Violence Fans like violence in their sports In 1933, Eddie Shore ended the

Fan Violence Fans like violence in their sports In 1933, Eddie Shore ended the playing career of Toronto’s Ace Bailey by hitting him over the head with a stick Pacers Vs Pistons fight 2004 (linked video) 29

Fan Violence False consensus effect: When individuals instigate aggression because they have a false

Fan Violence False consensus effect: When individuals instigate aggression because they have a false belief about the willingness of others to join in the aggressive acts Montreal 2008 After hitting a linesman, Maurice Richard was suspended by NHL President Clarence Campbell. His suspension leads to the 1955 "Richard Riot“, when large crowds of people took to the streets of Montreal to protest the 30 suspension and charge that it was a case of

Reducing Aggression in Sport 1. Punishment and -Individuals who Encouragement strongly influence athletes’ learning

Reducing Aggression in Sport 1. Punishment and -Individuals who Encouragement strongly influence athletes’ learning process need to ensure that the punishment for an act of aggression outweighs the benefits -Coaches and parents must focus on long term athlete development and 31

Reducing Aggression in Sport 2. Educational Interventions -Violence prevention seminars for parents, coaches and

Reducing Aggression in Sport 2. Educational Interventions -Violence prevention seminars for parents, coaches and players on managing aggression in youth sport -Psychological skills training for athletes to help them effectively deal with frustration, annoyance and attack 32 in

Reducing Aggression in Sport 3. Behaviour Modification Practices -Develop programs to teach athletes coping

Reducing Aggression in Sport 3. Behaviour Modification Practices -Develop programs to teach athletes coping strategies that will reduce the desire to behave aggressively -Train athletes to increase self awareness and assume responsibility for aggressive behaviour 33

Reducing Aggression in Sport Athletes at all skill levels would benefit from behaviour modification

Reducing Aggression in Sport Athletes at all skill levels would benefit from behaviour modification training During an NBA basketball game in 1977, Kermit Washington punched Rudy Tomjanovich in the face. -The punch was so brutal that it broke most of the bones in Tomjanovich’s face and left him with three cracked vertebrae leaking spinal fluid -Following the incident, Washington was suspended for 25 games. Tomjanovich returned to play 5 months later, but retired three seasons later because he still 34

Reducing Aggression in Sport 4. Changing the Sporting Environment Alcohol should be banned from

Reducing Aggression in Sport 4. Changing the Sporting Environment Alcohol should be banned from all sporting events 35

Reducing Aggression in Sport 5. Aggressive Behaviour in the Media The media exploits the

Reducing Aggression in Sport 5. Aggressive Behaviour in the Media The media exploits the fact that fans enjoy violence in sport by: a. Sensationalizing and replaying acts of aggression b. Glorifying aggression in feature stories c. Promoting previous aggressive behaviour between competitors to encourage future attendance In 1994, Tonya Harding conspired to injure competitor Nancy 36 Kerrigan