# Chapter 7 7 1 Recurrence Relations 7 2

- Slides: 11

Chapter 7 7. 1 Recurrence Relations 7. 2 Solving Linear Recurrence Relations 7. 3 Divide-and-Conquer Algorithms and Recurrence Relations 7. 4 Generating Functions 7. 5 Inclusion- Exclusion 7. 6 Applications of Inclusion-Exclusion 1

7. 1 Recurrence Relations • Modeling with Recurrence Relations 2

Recurrence Relations • The number of bacteria in a colony doubles every hour. If a colony begins with five bacteria , how many will be present in n hours? • Some of the counting problems that cannot be solved using the techniques discussed in Chapter 5 can be solved by finding relationships, called recurrence relations. • We will study variety of counting problems that can be modeled using recurrence relations. • We will develop methods in this section and in Section 7. 2 for finding explicit formulae for the terms of sequences that satisfy certain types of recurrence relations. 3

Recurrence Relations • Example 1: Let {an} be a sequence that satisfies the recurrence relation an = an-1 – an-2 for n=2, 3, 4, . . . And suppose that a 0= 3 and a 1= 5. What are a 2 and a 3 ? • Example 2: Determine whether the sequence {an}, where an=3 n for every nonnegative integer n, is a solution of the recurrence relation an=2 an-1 –an-2 for n=2, 3, 4, . . . , Answer the same question where an= 2 n and where an= 5? 4

Modeling with Recurrence Relations • Example 3: Compound Interest Suppose that person deposits $10, 000 in a savings account at a bank yielding 11% per year with interest compounded annually. • How much sill be in the account after 30 year? Solution: Pn = Pn-1 +0. 11 Pn-1 = (1. 11)Pn-1 P 1 = (1. 11)P 0 P 2 = (1. 11) p 1=(1. 11)2 p 0 P 3 = (1. 11) P 2=(1. 11)3 P 0 : • Pn = (1. 11) Pn-1=(1. 11)n P 0 • Inserting n =30 into the formula Pn =(1. 11)n 10, 000 shows that after 30 year the account contains • • • P 30 = (1. 11)3010, 000=$228, 922. 97 5

Modeling with Recurrence Relations • Example 4: Rabbits and the Fibonacci Numbers consider this problem, which was originally posed by Leonardo Pisano, also Known as Fibonacci, in the thirteenth century in his book Liber abaci. A young pair of rabbits ( one of each sex) is placed on n island. • A pair of rabbits does not breed until they are 2 months old. After they are 2 months old, each pair of rabbits produces another pair each month, as shown in Figure 1. • Find a recurrence relation for the number of pairs of rabbits on the island after n months, assuming that no rabbits ever die. 6

Modeling with Recurrence Relations FIGURE 1 Rabbits on an Island. • Consequently, the sequence {fn} satisfies the recurrence relation fn =fn-1 + fn-2 ; f 1=1, f 2=1 7

Modeling with Recurrence Relations • Example 5: The Tower of Hanoi A popular puzzle of the late nineteenth century invented by the French mathematician Édouard Lucas, called the Tower of Hanoi, consists of three pegs mounted on a board together with disks of different sizes. Initially there disks are placed on the first peg in order of size, with the largest on the bottom ( as shown in Figure 2). • The rules of the puzzle allow disks to be moved one at a time from one peg to another as long as a disk is never placed on the top of a smaller disk. • The goal of the puzzle is to have all the disks on the second peg in order of size, with the largest on the bottom. • Let {Hn} denote the number of moves needed to solve the Tower of Hanoi problem with n disks. Set up a recurrence relation for the sequence {Hn} 8

Modeling with Recurrence Relations FIGURE 2 The Initial Position in the Tower of Hanoi. FIGURE 3 An Intermediate Position in the Tower of Hanoi. 9

Modeling with Recurrence Relations • Example 6: Find a recurrence relation and give initial conditions for the number of bit strings of length n that do not have two consecutive 0 s. How many such bit strings are there of length five? • Example 7: Codeword Enumeration A computer system considers a string of decimal digits a valid codeword if it contains an even number of 0 digits. For instance, 1230407869 is valid, whereas 120987045608 is not valid. Let an be the number of valid n-digit codewords. Find a recurrence relation for an. 10

Modeling with Recurrence Relations • Example 8: Find a recurrence relation for Cn , the number of ways to parenthesize the product of n+1 numbers, x 0．x 1．x 2．. . . ．xn , to specify the order of multiplication. For example , C 3=5 because there are five ways to parenthesize x 0．x 1．x 2．x 3 to determine the order of multiplication: • ((x 0．x 1) ．x 2) ．x 3 • (x 0．(x 1 ．x 2))．x 3 • (x 0．x 1) ．(x 2 ．x 3) • x 0．((x 1 ．x 2) ．x 3 ) • x 0．(x 1 ．(x 2．x 3)) 11

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