Chapter 6 Personality and Lifestyles CONSUMER BEHAVIOR 8

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Chapter 6 Personality and Lifestyles CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 8 e Michael Solomon

Chapter 6 Personality and Lifestyles CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 8 e Michael Solomon

Chapter Objectives When you finish this chapter you should understand why: • A consumer’s

Chapter Objectives When you finish this chapter you should understand why: • A consumer’s personality influences the way he responds to marketing stimuli, but efforts to use this information in marketing contexts meet with mixed results. • Consumers’ lifestyles are key to many marketing strategies. • Psychographics go beyond simple demographics in helping marketers understand reach different consumer segments. Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -2

Chapter Objectives (cont. ) • Identifying patterns of consumption can be superior to knowledge

Chapter Objectives (cont. ) • Identifying patterns of consumption can be superior to knowledge of individual purchases when crafting a lifestyle marketing strategy. Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -3

Personality • Personality: a person’s unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the

Personality • Personality: a person’s unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the way a person responds to his/her environment Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -4

Freudian Systems Personality = conflict between gratification and responsibility • Id: pleasure principle •

Freudian Systems Personality = conflict between gratification and responsibility • Id: pleasure principle • Superego: our conscience • Ego: mediates between id and superego • Reality principle: ego gratifies the id in such a way that the outside world will find acceptable Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -5

Freudian Systems (cont. ) Marketing Implications • Unconscious motives underlying purchases • Symbolism in

Freudian Systems (cont. ) Marketing Implications • Unconscious motives underlying purchases • Symbolism in products to compromise id and superego • Sports car as sexual gratification for men Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -6

Symbolism in products • Ego relies on the symbolism in products to compromise between

Symbolism in products • Ego relies on the symbolism in products to compromise between the demands of Id and prohibition of superego, • The person channels his/her unacceptable desire into acceptable outlets by using product symbolism and MOTIVATION. • Symbolism in products to compromise id & superego • E. g. Ice cream to feel like a kid again • Freudian ideas unlock deeper product & advertisement meanings Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -7

Motivational Research • To unlock deeper product and advertisement meanings • Consumer depth interviews

Motivational Research • To unlock deeper product and advertisement meanings • Consumer depth interviews • Latent motives for purchases • Examples of Dichter’s motives (Table 6. 1) • Bowling, electric trains, power tools = power • Ice cream, beauty products = social acceptance Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -8

Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Table 6. 1 (abridged) 6 -9

Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Table 6. 1 (abridged) 6 -9

Motivational Research (cont. ) • Criticisms • Invalid or works too well • Too

Motivational Research (cont. ) • Criticisms • Invalid or works too well • Too sexually-based • Appeal • Less expensive than large-scale surveys • Powerful hook for promotional strategy • Intuitively plausible findings (after the fact) • Enhanced validity with other techniques Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -10

Neo-Freudian Theories • Karen Horney • Compliant versus detached versus aggressive • Alfred Adler

Neo-Freudian Theories • Karen Horney • Compliant versus detached versus aggressive • Alfred Adler • Motivation to overcome inferiority • Harry Stack Sullivan • Personality evolves to reduce anxiety Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -11

Neo-Freudian Theories: Jung • Carl Jung: analytical psychology (psychotherapy) • Collective unconscious • People

Neo-Freudian Theories: Jung • Carl Jung: analytical psychology (psychotherapy) • Collective unconscious • People are shaped by the cumulative • experiences of past generations. (afraid of the dark!) Archetypes: Shared memory of ancestral past. • Archetypes in advertising (old wise man, earth mother, etc. ) • Brand. Asset® Archetypes model • BAV® Brand Health measures Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -12

Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -13

Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -13

Brand. Asset Valuator Archetypes Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Figure 6. 1 (part 1 of 2)

Brand. Asset Valuator Archetypes Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Figure 6. 1 (part 1 of 2) 6 -14

Brand. Asset Valuator Archetypes (cont. ) Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Figure 6. 1 (part 2

Brand. Asset Valuator Archetypes (cont. ) Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Figure 6. 1 (part 2 of 2) 6 -15

Brand. Asset® Archetypes + BAV® Brand Health • Archetypes across cultures and time •

Brand. Asset® Archetypes + BAV® Brand Health • Archetypes across cultures and time • Archetypes telegraph instantly • Strong evidence of achieving business objectives with this model • “Early warning” signal of brand trouble Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -16

Trait Theory • Personality traits: identifiable characteristics that define a person • Traits relevant

Trait Theory • Personality traits: identifiable characteristics that define a person • Traits relevant to consumer behavior: • Innovativeness • • • The degree to which a person likes to try new things Materialism • Amount of emphasis placed on acquiring and owning products Self-consciousness • The degree to which a person deliberately monitors and controls the image of the self that is projected to others • Need for cognition • The degree to which a person likes to think about things (i. e. , expend the necessary effort to process brand information) • Frugality • Deny short-term purchasing whims and resourcefully use what one already owns Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -17

Discussion • This classic ad starts off with the line: “The Datsun 240 -Z

Discussion • This classic ad starts off with the line: “The Datsun 240 -Z is not exactly what you would call a common site. ” • What consumer personality trait is this ad appealing to? Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -18

Are You an Innie or an Outie? Idiocentrics Allocentrics (individualist orientation) (group orientation) Contentment

Are You an Innie or an Outie? Idiocentrics Allocentrics (individualist orientation) (group orientation) Contentment More satisfied with current life Less satisfied with current life Health Consciousness Less likely to avoid unhealthy foods More likely to avoid unhealthy foods Food Preparation Spend less time preparing food Love kitchen; spend more time preparing food Workaholics More likely to work hard and stay late at work Less likely to work hard Travel and Entertainment More interested in traveling to other cultures Visit library and read more Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -19

Problems with Trait Theory • Prediction of product choices using traits of consumers is

Problems with Trait Theory • Prediction of product choices using traits of consumers is mixed at best • Scales not valid/reliable • Tests borrow scales used for the mentally ill • Inappropriate testing conditions • Ad hoc instrument changes • Use of global measures to predict specific brand purchases • “Shotgun approach” (no thought of scale application) Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -20

Brand Personality • Brand personality: set of traits people attribute to a product as

Brand Personality • Brand personality: set of traits people attribute to a product as if it were a person • Brand equity: extent to which a consumer holds strong, favorable, and unique associations with a brand in memory—and the extent to which s/he is willing to pay more for the branded version of a product than for a nonbranded (generic) version • Extensive consumer research goes into brand campaigns Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -21

Animism • Animism: • The practice found in many cultures whereby inanimate objects are

Animism • Animism: • The practice found in many cultures whereby inanimate objects are given qualities that make them somehow alive • Two types of animism: • Level 1: People believe the object is possessed by the soul of the being (e. g. celebrity spokespersons) • Level 2: Objects are anthropomorphized, or given human characteristics. (e. g. Charlie the Tuna, Keebler Elves, or the Michelin Man) • Positioning/repositioning strategies describing brands as people • E. g. “Lust, envy, jealousy. The dangers of Volvo. ” Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -22

Brand Behaviors and Personality Trait Inferences Brand Action Trait Inference Brand is repositioned several

Brand Behaviors and Personality Trait Inferences Brand Action Trait Inference Brand is repositioned several times or changes slogan repeatedly Flighty, schizophrenic Brand uses continuing character in advertising Familiar, comfortable Brand charges high prices and uses exclusive distribution Snobbish, sophisticated Brand frequently available on deal Cheap, uncultured Brand offers many line extensions Versatile, adaptable Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Table 6. 2 (abridged) 6 -23

Lifestyles • Lifestyle: patterns of consumption reflecting a person’s choices of how one spends

Lifestyles • Lifestyle: patterns of consumption reflecting a person’s choices of how one spends time and money • Lifestyle marketing perspective: people sort themselves into groups on the basis of: • What they like to do • How they spend leisure time • How they spend disposable income • Example: Magazines targeting specific lifestyles: WWF Magazine, 4 Wheel & Off Road, Reader’s Digest Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -24

Lifestyles as Group Identities • Forms of expressive symbolism • Self-definition of group members

Lifestyles as Group Identities • Forms of expressive symbolism • Self-definition of group members = common symbol system • Terms include lifestyle, taste public, consumer group, symbolic community, status culture • Each person provides a unique “twist” to be an “individual” • Tastes/preferences evolve over time Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -25

Products as Building Blocks of Lifestyles • Product usage in desirable social settings •

Products as Building Blocks of Lifestyles • Product usage in desirable social settings • Consumption style • Patterns of behavior • Co-branding strategies: brands team up with other companies to promote their products understand this (Porsche-Fairmont hotel) • Product complementarity: symbolic meanings of different products relate to one another • Consumption constellations: define, communicate, and perform social roles • Sets of complementary products used to define, communicate and perform social roles (e. g. Yuppie) 6 -26

Linking Products to Lifestyles Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Figure 6. 2 6 -27

Linking Products to Lifestyles Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Figure 6. 2 6 -27

Product complementarity Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -28

Product complementarity Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -28

Discussion • What consumption constellation might characterize you and your friends today? Prentice-Hall, cr

Discussion • What consumption constellation might characterize you and your friends today? Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -29

Psychographics • Psychographics: use of psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors to: • Determine market

Psychographics • Psychographics: use of psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors to: • Determine market segments • Determine their reasons for choosing products • Fine-tune offerings to meet needs of different segments • Consumers can share the same demographics and still be very different! Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -30

Best Buy Psychographic Segments • “Jill: ” busy suburban mom who buys electronics for

Best Buy Psychographic Segments • “Jill: ” busy suburban mom who buys electronics for family • “Buzz: ” focused, active younger male interested in buying latest gadgets • “Ray: ” family man who likes his technology practical • “BB 4 B (Best Buy for Business): ” small employer • “Barry: ” affluent professional male who’ll drop tens of thousands of dollars on a home theater system Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -31

Lifestyle/Personality Variables for Soup Lifestyle Personality Active Lifestyle (Vegetable): I am: outdoorsy, physically fit,

Lifestyle/Personality Variables for Soup Lifestyle Personality Active Lifestyle (Vegetable): I am: outdoorsy, physically fit, workaholic, socially active Mentally Alert (Clam Chowder): I am: intellectual, sophisticated, creative, detail-oriented, witty, nutrition conscious Family Spirited (Chicken Noodle): I am: family-oriented, churchgoer, traditional Social (Chili): I am: fun at parties, outgoing, spontaneous, trendsetter Homebody (Tomato): I am: a homebody, good cook, pet lover; I enjoy spending time alone Athletic (Cream Soups): I am: athletic, competitive, adventurous Intellectually Stimulated Pastimes (French Onion): I am: a technology whiz, world traveler, book lover Carefree (Minestrone): I am: down-to-earth, affectionate, fun loving, optimistic Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Table 6. 3 6 -32

Doing a Psychographic Analysis • Lifestyle profile: differentiates between users and nonusers of a

Doing a Psychographic Analysis • Lifestyle profile: differentiates between users and nonusers of a product • Product-specific profile: identifies a target group and profiles consumers based on product-related dimensions • General lifestyle segmentation: places a large sample of respondents into homogeneous groups based on similarities of preferences • Product-specific segmentation: tailors questions to a product category Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -33

AIOs • Grouping consumers according to: • Activities • Interests • Opinions • 80/20

AIOs • Grouping consumers according to: • Activities • Interests • Opinions • 80/20 Rule: lifestyle segments that produce the bulk of customers • Heavy users and the benefits they derive from product Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -34

Lifestyle Dimensions Activities Interests Opinions Demographics Work Family Themselves Age Hobbies Home Social issues

Lifestyle Dimensions Activities Interests Opinions Demographics Work Family Themselves Age Hobbies Home Social issues Education Social events Job Politics Income Vacation Community Business Occupation Entertainment Recreation Economics Family size Club membership Fashion Education Dwelling Community Food Products Geography Shopping Media Future City size Sports Achievements Culture Stage in life cycle Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Table 6. 4 6 -35

Psychographic Segmentation Uses • • • To define target market To create new view

Psychographic Segmentation Uses • • • To define target market To create new view of market To position product To better communicate product attributes To develop overall strategy To market social/political issues Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -36

VALS 2 TM Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Figure 6. 3 6 -37

VALS 2 TM Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Figure 6. 3 6 -37

Discussion • Construct separate advertising executions for a cosmetics product targeted to the Belonger,

Discussion • Construct separate advertising executions for a cosmetics product targeted to the Belonger, Achiever, Experiencer, and Maker VALS types. • How would the basic appeal differ for each group? Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -38

Global Psychographic Typologies • Global MOSAIC • Identifies segments across 19 countries • RISC

Global Psychographic Typologies • Global MOSAIC • Identifies segments across 19 countries • RISC • Lifestyles/sociocultural change in 40+ countries • Divides population into 10 segments using 3 axis: • Exploration/Stability • Social/Individual • Global/Local • 40 measured “trends” (e. g. , “spirituality”, “blurring of the sexes”, “Environment”, “Uncertainty”, “social participation”…etc) Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -39

Discussion • Extreme sports. Day trading. Blogging. Vegetarianism. Can you predict what will be

Discussion • Extreme sports. Day trading. Blogging. Vegetarianism. Can you predict what will be “hot” in the near future? • Identify a lifestyle trend that is just surfacing in your universe. • Describe this trend in detail, and justify your prediction. • What specific styles and/or products are part of this trend? Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -40

Ten Risk Segments Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Figure 6. 4 6 -41

Ten Risk Segments Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Figure 6. 4 6 -41

Geodemography • Consumer expenditures/socioeconomic factors + geographic information • “Birds of a feature flock

Geodemography • Consumer expenditures/socioeconomic factors + geographic information • “Birds of a feature flock together” • Can be reached more economically (e. g. , 90277 zip code in Redondo Beach, CA) Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -42

Discussion • Geodemographic techniques assume that people who live in the same neighborhood have

Discussion • Geodemographic techniques assume that people who live in the same neighborhood have other things in common as well. • Why do they make this assumption, and how accurate is it? Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -43

Food Cultures • Food culture: pattern of food and beverage consumption that reflects the

Food Cultures • Food culture: pattern of food and beverage consumption that reflects the values of a social group • Differences in international food cultures: • In China, milk chocolate has less milk • In United States, Campbell’s soup is saltier than in • Mexico In Germany, food must be healthier Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 6 -44

PRIZM by Claritas, Inc. • PRIZM (Potential Rating Index by Zip Market) combines demographic,

PRIZM by Claritas, Inc. • PRIZM (Potential Rating Index by Zip Market) combines demographic, consumer behavior, and geographic data to help marketers identify, understand target their customers and prospects • 66 clusters of U. S. zip codes • Example: “Young Influential, ” “Money and • Brains, ” “Kids and Cul-de-Sacs” Ranked by income, home value, and occupation • Maximize effectiveness, cost-efficiency, and impact of marketing communications Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Click to access Mybestsegments. com 6 -45

Comparison of Two PRIZM Clusters Furs and Station Wagons Tobacco Roads New money, parents

Comparison of Two PRIZM Clusters Furs and Station Wagons Tobacco Roads New money, parents in 40 s and 50 s Racially mixed farm town in South Newly built subdivisions with tennis courts, swimming pools, gardens Small downtowns with thrift shops, diners, and laundromats; shanty-type homes without indoor plumbing High Usage Country clubs Wine by the case Lawn furniture Gourmet magazine BMW 5 Series Rye bread Natural cold cereal High Usage Travel by bus Asthma medicine Malt liquors Grit magazine Pregnancy tests Pontiac Bonneville Shortening Low Usage Motorcycles Laxatives Nonfilter cigarettes Chewing tobacco Hunting magazine Chevrolet Chevette Canned stews Low Usage Knitting Live theater Smoke detectors Ms. Magazine Ferraris Whole-wheat bread Mexican foods Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Table 6. 5 6 -46