- Slides: 23
CHAPTER 6 “Launching a New Nation”
CHAPTER 6 – SECTION 1 Understanding George Washington
Back in 1781… The Revolution is over!!! Holla!! Britain is defeated!!! We are no longer colonies, we are free states…. United States!!! NOTE: Independence not fully recognized (by Britain) until Treaty of Paris in 1783
Since the war’s end…. George Washington desires to retire to his estate: Mount Vernon in Virginia
From 1783 -1787… The states were organized under the Articles of Confederation. This first government was weak, because it: • Lacked a single leader (President) • Had no powers, such as taxation • Forced all states to agree on any laws/changes to Articles (states usually disagreed)
From 1787 -1789… Government leaders decided to throw out the Articles… and create an entirely new government. Delegates from each state spent 2 years debating on, and finally agreeing on, a new government…the CONSTITUTION!! What was needed was a single leader…. but who to vote for?
It was a unanimous decision! George Washington! George Washington!
Aww man… I was planning to go home and chill out…. . Alright. For the good of our nation…I will be the first president.
George’s Thoughts on Inauguration… “About ten o’clock I bade adieu [farewell] to Mount Vernon, to private life, and to domestic felicity [happiness]; and with a mind oppressed with more anxious and painful sensations than I have words to express, set out for New York…. . with the best dispositions [intentions] to render service to my country in obedience to its call, but with less hope of answering its expectations. ”
w. Knowledge Checkpoint 1 1. Why is Washington chosen as first president? 2. How did he feel about this? (Next…. Washington’s Accomplishments and Challenges)
How will we organize our new government? What system will we create? How? The reality for Washington and our early leaders: Their actions had no precedent (previous example or standard) for them to follow.
James Madison’s Thoughts on Starting Up the New Nation… “We are in the wilderness without a single footstep to guide us. ”
Washington’s 1 st Task: I. Judiciary Act of 1789 – creates a court system § Supreme Court § Federal Courts § State Courts § Local Courts § Appeals Process Cases that may challenge the word of the Constitution are heard by the Supreme Court for the good of the nation. Local court cases may be appealed and sent to higher courts for more official decisions.
Washington’s 2 nd Task: II. The Cabinet – the President’s advisers § § Dept. of State (foreign affairs) - Sec. Thomas Jefferson Dept. of War (military) - Sec. Henry Knox Dept. of Treasury (finances) - Sec. Alexander Hamilton Attorney General (head lawyer) - Edmund Randolph Today, there are 14 offices in the Cabinet.
Washington’s 3 rd Task: III. Bank of the United States – national bank system created § § Help U. S. pay off debt from Revolution Handle taxes / gov’t funds
However, The Bank caused a huge debate… § Alexander Hamilton Pro-Bank National Power North / New England supporters § Thomas Jefferson Anti-Bank Local Power South / Western supporters
w. Knowledge Checkpoint 2 3. George Washington set a precedent, which means what? 4. How was the Judiciary Act of 1789 and the Cabinet beneficial to our nation? 5. Why was the Bank of the United States controversial? (Next…. More of Washington’s Accomplishments and Challenges)
Washington’s 4 th Task: IV. Washington, D. C. – creating a capital city § Original capital – New York City § New location – between Maryland Virginia WHY? § Site chosen to make Jefferson / Southern states happy & agree to support Bank of the U. S. § 1790 – Grid streets designed by A. Ellicott & B. Banneker
Washington’s 5 th Task: V. Two-Party System – 2 political parties emerge “I am NOT happy about this…. ” FEDERALISTS DEMOCRAT-REPUBLICANS (ANTI-FEDERALISTS) -Support Hamilton -Strong central gov’t -Support Jefferson -Weak central gov’t
George’s Thoughts on Two Parties… “It serves always to distract the public councils and enfeeble the public administration. It agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms; kindles the animosity of one part against another; foments [incites] occasionally riot and insurrection. It opens the door to foreign influence and corruption…”
Washington’s 6 th Task: VI. Whiskey Rebellion – the first big riot 1789 - Gov’t places excise tax on whiskey Washington leads 15, 000 militia over Appalachians 1794 - Farmers angrily organize and rebel Rebellious farmers scatter and flee. No loss of life. NOTE: This proves the national gov’t’s ability to
w. Knowledge Checkpoint 3 6. D. C……Why? 7. Why did Washington find a two-party system sketchy? Do you agree with him? 8. What did the Whiskey Rebellion prove? (Next…. Alot more on the continued subjugation of proletarian franchise by elite industrial robber barons in post-Victorian society in the Western hemisphere, accounting for gender/racial biases)