Chapter 6 Fibers Wherever he steps whatever he

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Chapter 6: Fibers “Wherever he steps, whatever he touches, whatever he leaves even unconsciously,

Chapter 6: Fibers “Wherever he steps, whatever he touches, whatever he leaves even unconsciously, will serve as silent witness against him. Not only his fingerprints or his footprints, but his hair, the fibers from his clothes, the glass he breaks, the tool marks he leaves, the paint he scratches, the blood or semen he deposits or collects —all of these and more bear mute witness against him. This is evidence that does not forget. ” —Paul L. Kirk (1902 – 1970) -Forensic scientist

"Fibers can occur naturally as plant and animal fibers, but they can also be

"Fibers can occur naturally as plant and animal fibers, but they can also be man-made. "A fiber is the smallest unit of a textile material that has a length many times greater than its diameter. " Chapter 6 2

"A fiber can be spun with other fibers to form a yarn that can

"A fiber can be spun with other fibers to form a yarn that can be woven or knitted to form a fabric. "The type and length of fiber used, the type of spinning method, and the type of fabric construction all affect the transfer of fibers and the significance of fiber associations. Chapter 6 3

" You heard me before; yet you hear me again. Then I die… ‘til

" You heard me before; yet you hear me again. Then I die… ‘til you call me again. What am I? An echo 4

I turn around once. What is out will not get in. I turn around

I turn around once. What is out will not get in. I turn around again. What is in will not get out. What am I? a key 5

Fiber Number " The number of fibers on the clothing of a victim identified

Fiber Number " The number of fibers on the clothing of a victim identified as matching the clothing of a suspect is important in determining actual contact. " The greater the number of fibers, the more likely that contact actually occurred between these individuals Chapter 6 6

Fibers The student will learn: Fibers can be used as circumstantial evidence to link

Fibers The student will learn: Fibers can be used as circumstantial evidence to link the victim, suspect, and crime scene. Fibers are class evidence. Statistics are important in determining the value of evidence. Chapter 6 7

" Cross transfers of fiber often occur in cases in which there is person-to-person

" Cross transfers of fiber often occur in cases in which there is person-to-person contact " Investigators hope that fiber traceable back to the offender can be found at the crime scene, as well as vice versa. " Success in solving crimes often hinge on the ability to narrow the sources for the type of fiber found, as the prosecution did with their probability theory on the fibers Chapter 6 8

Chapter 6

Chapter 6

Forensic Fiber Analysis Why would this information be valuable to a forensic scientist? "

Forensic Fiber Analysis Why would this information be valuable to a forensic scientist? " The world produced approximately 80 billion pounds of fabric in 1995, about half of which was cotton " The other approximately 44 billion pounds of fiber were manufactured or synthetic. Chapter 6 Fiber Polyester Product 3, 887 Nylon 270 Olefin 521 Rayon/Acetate/Tria cetate 498 Acrylic/Modacrylic 432 (Table 1 [6]). All these fibers were used in a variety of applications including but not limited to clothing, household textiles, carpeting, and industrial textiles. 12

" Fibers are gathered at a crime scene with tweezers, tape, or a vacuum.

" Fibers are gathered at a crime scene with tweezers, tape, or a vacuum. " They generally come from clothing, drapery, wigs, carpeting, furniture, and blankets. " For analysis, they are first determined to be natural, manufactured, or a mix of both. Chapter 6 13

Fibers § § Chapter 6 Are considered class evidence Have probative value Are common

Fibers § § Chapter 6 Are considered class evidence Have probative value Are common trace evidence at a crime scene Can be characterized based on comparison of both physical and chemical properties 14

Fiber Evidence " The problem with fiber evidence is that fibers are not unique.

Fiber Evidence " The problem with fiber evidence is that fibers are not unique. " Unlike fingerprints or DNA, they cannot pinpoint an offender in any definitive manner. " There must be other factors involved, such as evidence that the fibers can corroborate or something unique to the fibers that set them apart. Chapter 6 15

Natural Fibers vs Manufactured " Natural fibers come from plants (cotton) or animals (wool).

Natural Fibers vs Manufactured " Natural fibers come from plants (cotton) or animals (wool). " Manufactured fibers are synthetics like rayon, acetate, and polyester, which are made from long chains of molecules called polymers. Chapter 6 16

Fabric § § Chapter 6 Fabric is made of fibers. Fibers are made of

Fabric § § Chapter 6 Fabric is made of fibers. Fibers are made of twisted filaments Types of fibers and fabric § Natural—animal, vegetable or inorganic § Artificial—synthesized or created from altered natural sources 17

Types of Fibers Synthetic § § § Chapter 6 Rayon Nylon Acetate Acrylic Spandex

Types of Fibers Synthetic § § § Chapter 6 Rayon Nylon Acetate Acrylic Spandex Polyester Natural § § § Silk Cotton Wool Mohair Cashmere 18

Classification Natural fibers are classified according to their origin: § Vegetable or cellulose §

Classification Natural fibers are classified according to their origin: § Vegetable or cellulose § Animal or protein § Mineral Chapter 6 19

Cellulose Fibers " Cotton—vegetable fiber; strong, tough, flexible, moisture absorbent, not shape retentive "

Cellulose Fibers " Cotton—vegetable fiber; strong, tough, flexible, moisture absorbent, not shape retentive " Rayon—chemically-altered soft, lustrous, versatile cellulose; " Cellulose acetate—cellulose chemically-altered to create an entirely new compound not found in nature. Chapter 6 20

" Cellulose Chapter 6 acetate 21

" Cellulose Chapter 6 acetate 21

Fiber Comparison Can you tell the difference(s) between the cotton on the left and

Fiber Comparison Can you tell the difference(s) between the cotton on the left and the rayon on the right? Chapter 6 22

Natural Fibers vs Manufactured Chapter 6 23

Natural Fibers vs Manufactured Chapter 6 23

Other plant fibers " Flax (linen), ramie, sisal, jute, hemp, kapok, and coir. "

Other plant fibers " Flax (linen), ramie, sisal, jute, hemp, kapok, and coir. " The identification of less common plant fibers at a crime scene or on the clothing of a suspect or victim would have increased significance. Chapter 6 Flax fibers viewed with polarized light 24

Protein Fibers Chapter 6 § Wool—animal fiber coming most often from sheep, but may

Protein Fibers Chapter 6 § Wool—animal fiber coming most often from sheep, but may be goat (mohair), rabbit (angora), camel, alpaca, llama, vicuna § Silk—insect fiber that is spun by a silk worm to make its cocoon; fiber reflects light and has insulating properties 25

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Mineral Fibers Chapter 6 § Asbestos—a natural fiber that has been used in fireresistant

Mineral Fibers Chapter 6 § Asbestos—a natural fiber that has been used in fireresistant substances § Rock wool —a manufactured mineral fiber § Fiberglass—a manufactured inorganic fiber 30

Man-Made Fibers " Over ½ of all fibers used in the production of textile

Man-Made Fibers " Over ½ of all fibers used in the production of textile materials are man-made. " Some man-made fibers originate from natural materials such as cotton or wood; " others originate from synthetic materials. Chapter 6 Cross section of manmade fibers 31

" Polyester and nylon fibers are the most commonly encountered man-made fibers, followed by

" Polyester and nylon fibers are the most commonly encountered man-made fibers, followed by acrylics, rayons, and acetates. " There also many other less common man-made fibers. " The amount of production of a particular man-made fiber and its end use influence the degree of rarity of a given fiber. Chapter 6 32

Weave Terminology Chapter 6 § Yarn—a continuous strand of fibers or filaments, either twisted

Weave Terminology Chapter 6 § Yarn—a continuous strand of fibers or filaments, either twisted or not § Warp—lengthwise yarn § Weft—crosswise yarn § Blend—a fabric made up of two or more different types of fiber. 33

Weave Patterns Chapter 6 34

Weave Patterns Chapter 6 34

Federal Trade Commission Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Products Identification Act, 1954 Generic

Federal Trade Commission Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Products Identification Act, 1954 Generic names for manufactured fibers " Acetate " Acrylic " Anidex " Aramid " Glass " Lyocel " Nylon " Metallic • Novoloid • Olefin • Polyester • Rayon • Saran • Spandex • Vinal • Vinyon " Modacrylic Chapter 6 35

Synthetic Fibers (Made from derivatives of petroleum, coal and natural gas) Chapter 6 §

Synthetic Fibers (Made from derivatives of petroleum, coal and natural gas) Chapter 6 § Nylon—most durable of man-made fibers; extremely light weight § Polyester—most widely used manmade fiber § Acrylic—provides warmth from a lightweight, soft and resilient fiber § Spandex—extreme elastic properties 36

Twill Weave Chapter 6 § The warp yarn is passed over one to three

Twill Weave Chapter 6 § The warp yarn is passed over one to three weft yarns before going under one § Makes a diagonal weave pattern § Design resembles stair steps § Denim is one of the most common examples 37

Satin Weave Chapter 6 § The yarn interlacing is not uniform § Creates long

Satin Weave Chapter 6 § The yarn interlacing is not uniform § Creates long floats § Interlacing weave passes over four or more yarns § Satin is the most obvious example 38

Knitted Fabric Knitted fabrics are made by interlocking loops into a specific arrangement. It

Knitted Fabric Knitted fabrics are made by interlocking loops into a specific arrangement. It may be one continuous thread or a combination. Either way, the yarn is formed into successive rows of loops and then drawn through another series of loops to make the fabric. Chapter 6 39

Polymers Chapter 6 § Synthetic fibers are made of polymers which are long chains

Polymers Chapter 6 § Synthetic fibers are made of polymers which are long chains of repeating chemical units. § The word polymer means many (poly), units (mer). § The repeating units of a polymer are called monomers. § By varying the chemical structure of the monomers or by varying the way they are joined together, polymers are created that have different properties. § As a result of these differences, forensically they can be distinguished from one another. 40

Man-Made Fibers " The cross section of a man- made fiber can be manufacturer-specific

Man-Made Fibers " The cross section of a man- made fiber can be manufacturer-specific " Some cross sections are more common than others, and some shapes may only be produced for a short period of time. " Unusual cross sections encountered through examination can add increased significance to a Cross-sectional views of nylon carpet fiber association. Chapter 6 fibers as seen with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) 41

Filament Cross-Sections Synthetic fibers are forced out of a nozzle when they are hot,

Filament Cross-Sections Synthetic fibers are forced out of a nozzle when they are hot, and then they are woven. The holes of the nozzle are not necessarily round; therefore, the fiber filament may have a unique shape in cross-section. Chapter 6 42

Fiber Forensics " Generally, the analyst gets only a limited number of fibers to

Fiber Forensics " Generally, the analyst gets only a limited number of fibers to work with— sometimes only one. " Whatever has been gathered from the crime scene is then compared against fibers from a suspect source, such as a car or home " Fibers are laid side by side for visual inspection through a microscope. Chapter 6 43

Testing for Identification Chapter 6 § Microscopic observation § Burning—observation of how a fiber

Testing for Identification Chapter 6 § Microscopic observation § Burning—observation of how a fiber burns, the odor, color of flame, smoke and the appearance of the residue § Thermal decomposition—gently heating to break down the fiber to the basic monomers § Chemical tests—solubility and decomposition 44

Testing for Identification Chapter 6 § Density—mass of object divided by the volume of

Testing for Identification Chapter 6 § Density—mass of object divided by the volume of the object § Refractive Index—measuring the bending of light as it passes from air into a solid or liquid § Fluorescence—used for comparing fibers as well as spotting fibers for collection 45

Dyes Chapter 6 § Components that make up dyes can be separated and matched

Dyes Chapter 6 § Components that make up dyes can be separated and matched to an unknown. § There are more than 7000 different dye formulations. § Chromatography is used to separate dyes for comparative analysis. § The way a fabric accepts a particular dye may also be used to identify and compare samples. 46

Identification and Comparison of Fibers Chapter 6 § Fourier Transform Infrared analysis (FTIR)— based

Identification and Comparison of Fibers Chapter 6 § Fourier Transform Infrared analysis (FTIR)— based on selective absorption of wavelengths of light § Optical microscopy—uses polarizing light and comparison microscopes § Pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PGC-MS)—burns a sample under controlled conditions, separates and analyzes each combustion product 47

Collection of Fiber Evidence Chapter 6 § Bag clothing items individually in paper bags.

Collection of Fiber Evidence Chapter 6 § Bag clothing items individually in paper bags. Make sure that different items are not placed on the same surface before being bagged. § Make tape lifts of exposed skin areas of bodies and any inanimate objects § Removed fibers should be folded into a small sheet of paper and stored in a paper bag. 48

Fiber Evidence Fiber evidence in court cases can be used to connect the suspect

Fiber Evidence Fiber evidence in court cases can be used to connect the suspect to the victim or to the crime scene. In the case of Wayne Williams, a. k. a. the “Atlanta Child Killer” fibers weighed heavily on the outcome of the case. Williams was convicted in 1982 based on carpet fibers that were found in his home, car and on several murder victims. Chapter 6 49

" Williams first became a suspect of the child murder case in May 1981.

" Williams first became a suspect of the child murder case in May 1981. His car was spotted directly above the sound of a loud splash heard in the river by a stake out team. He was stopped by police and questioned, and claimed that he was going out of town to audition a young singer. This alibi fell apart after police found that the address and phone number he gave them didn't exist. Chapter 6 50

" Three days later, the nude body of 27 year- old Nathaniel Cater, who

" Three days later, the nude body of 27 year- old Nathaniel Cater, who had been missing for days, turned up in the river. The medical examiner on the case ruled he had died of "probable" asphyxia, but never authoritatively said he had been strangled. Police theorized that Williams had killed Cater and had thrown him off the bridge the night they had pulled him over. Chapter 6 51

" Their suspicions about Williams increased after he failed a polygraph test, and hairs

" Their suspicions about Williams increased after he failed a polygraph test, and hairs and fibers on one of the victims' bodies were found consistent with those from Williams' home, car, and dog. Throughout the course of the investigation, police staked out Williams' home for several weeks while he taunted them with insults and jokes Chapter 6 52

" During this time, people working in Williams' studio told police they had seen

" During this time, people working in Williams' studio told police they had seen him with scratches on his face and arms around the time of the murders, which the police thought could have been inflicted by victims during a struggle. " Williams held a press conference outside his parents' home, proclaiming his innocence. He was nevertheless arrested on June 21, 1981, for the murders of Cater and 29 -year-old Jimmy Payne. Chapter 6 53

" Williams' trial began on January 6, 1982. The prosecution's case relied on an

" Williams' trial began on January 6, 1982. The prosecution's case relied on an abundance of circumstantial evidence. During the two-month trial, prosecutors matched 19 different sources of fibers from Williams' environment: his bedspread, bathroom, gloves, clothes, carpets, dog and an unusual tri-lobal carpet fiber to a number of victims. Chapter 6 54

There was also eyewitness testimony placing Williams with different victims, blood stains from victims

There was also eyewitness testimony placing Williams with different victims, blood stains from victims matching blood in Williams' car, and testimony that he was a pedophile attracted to young black boys. Williams himself took the stand, but alienated the jury by becoming angry and combative. Chapter 6 55

" Williams never recovered from the outburst, and on February 27, the jury deliberated

" Williams never recovered from the outburst, and on February 27, the jury deliberated for 10 hours before finding him guilty of murdering Cater and Payne. He was then sentenced to two consecutive terms of life imprisonment. Chapter 6 56

More about Fibers For additional information about fibers and other trace evidence, check out

More about Fibers For additional information about fibers and other trace evidence, check out Court TV’s Crime Library at: www. crimelibrary. com/criminal_mind/forensics/trace/1. html Chapter 6 57