Chapter 6 Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Behavior

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Chapter 6 Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Behavior © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper

Chapter 6 Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Behavior © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and Makens

“To be a bullfighter, you must first learn to be a bull. ” -Anonymous

“To be a bullfighter, you must first learn to be a bull. ” -Anonymous © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Chapter Objectives • Name the elements of the stimulus– response model of consumer behavior

Chapter Objectives • Name the elements of the stimulus– response model of consumer behavior • Outline the major characteristics affecting consumer behavior • Explain the buyer decision process © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Consumer Buying Behavior • Consumer buying behavior refers to the buying behavior of final

Consumer Buying Behavior • Consumer buying behavior refers to the buying behavior of final consumers – individuals & households who buy goods and services for personal consumption • The central question for marketers is: “How do consumers respond to various marketing efforts the company might use? ” © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Five Premises of Consumer Behavior • Consume behavior is purposeful and goal oriented •

Five Premises of Consumer Behavior • Consume behavior is purposeful and goal oriented • The consumer has free choice • Consumer behavior is a process • Consumer behavior can be influenced • There is a need for consumer education © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

A Model of Consumer Behavior © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ

A Model of Consumer Behavior © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Personal Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior • Cultural Factors • Social Factors • Personal Factors

Personal Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior • Cultural Factors • Social Factors • Personal Factors • Psychological Factors © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Cultural Factors • Culture is the most basic determinant of a person’s wants and

Cultural Factors • Culture is the most basic determinant of a person’s wants and behavior • Subcultures are groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations • Social classes are relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Social Factors • Consumer behavior is influenced by: – Consumers’ groups – Family –

Social Factors • Consumer behavior is influenced by: – Consumers’ groups – Family – Social roles – Status © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Consumer Groups • An individual’s attitudes and behavior are influenced by many small groups

Consumer Groups • An individual’s attitudes and behavior are influenced by many small groups • Types of groups – Membership groups – Reference groups – Aspirational groups • Opinion leaders © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Personal Factors • Age and Life-Cycle Stage • Occupation • Economic Situation • Lifestyle

Personal Factors • Age and Life-Cycle Stage • Occupation • Economic Situation • Lifestyle – a person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her activities, interests, and opinions © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Personal Factors • Lifestyle – Values and Lifestyles (VALS) framework • American Lifestyles –

Personal Factors • Lifestyle – Values and Lifestyles (VALS) framework • American Lifestyles – Believers (principle oriented consumers) – Achievers (successful, work-oriented people who get satisfaction from their jobs) © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Personal Factors • Personality is a person’s distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively

Personal Factors • Personality is a person’s distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to his or her environment • Self-Concept is the complex mental pictures people have of themselves, also known as self-image © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Psychological Factors • Motivation – Maslow’s Theory of Motivation • Sought to explain why

Psychological Factors • Motivation – Maslow’s Theory of Motivation • Sought to explain why people are driven by particular needs at particular times – Herzberg’s Theory • A two-two factor theory that distinguishes dissatisfiers (factors that cause dissatisfaction) and satisfiers (factors that cause satisfaction) © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization Esteem Needs (self-esteem) Social Needs (sense of belonging,

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization Esteem Needs (self-esteem) Social Needs (sense of belonging, love) Safety Needs (security, protection) Physiological Needs (hunger, thirst) © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Psychological Factors • Perception – Selective Attention • Consumers are constantly bombarded with information

Psychological Factors • Perception – Selective Attention • Consumers are constantly bombarded with information and will screen out stimuli – Selective Distortion • Messages to do not always come across in the same way the sender indented. – Selective Retention • People will forget much that they learn but will tend to retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Psychological Factors • Learning describes changes in an individual’s behavior arising from experience •

Psychological Factors • Learning describes changes in an individual’s behavior arising from experience • A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something • An attitude describes a person’s relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or an idea © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Buyer Decision Process © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing

Buyer Decision Process © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Need Recognition • For the decision process to begin, a potential buyer must first

Need Recognition • For the decision process to begin, a potential buyer must first recognize a problem or need • Can be caused by internal or external stimuli © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Information Search • Information can be obtained from: – Personal Sources • Family, friends,

Information Search • Information can be obtained from: – Personal Sources • Family, friends, neighbors, and acquaintances – Commercial Sources • Advertising, salespeople, dealers, packaging, and displays – Public Sources • Restaurant reviews, editorials in the travel section, consumer-rating organizations © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Evaluation of Alternatives • Products are seen as bundles of product attributes • Customers

Evaluation of Alternatives • Products are seen as bundles of product attributes • Customers rank attributes and form purchase intentions © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Purchase Decision © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for

Purchase Decision © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Post Purchase Behavior • The smaller the gap between customer expectations and perceived performance,

Post Purchase Behavior • The smaller the gap between customer expectations and perceived performance, the greater the customer’s satisfaction • Cognitive dissonance is buyer discomfort caused by post purchase conflict © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Best Practices • Consumers often view price as an indication of quality • Dissatisfied

Best Practices • Consumers often view price as an indication of quality • Dissatisfied customers may not complain • Employees must seek out consumer dissatisfaction © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Best Practices in Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Behavior • What did these hotels

Best Practices in Consumer Markets and Consumer Buying Behavior • What did these hotels do? – Pebble Beach Resorts – Yum Brands – El Questro, Western Australia © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Key Terms • Aspirational group • Attitude • Belief • Brand image • Cognitive

Key Terms • Aspirational group • Attitude • Belief • Brand image • Cognitive dissonance • Culture © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Key Terms • Family life cycle • Learning • Lifestyle • Membership groups •

Key Terms • Family life cycle • Learning • Lifestyle • Membership groups • Motive (or drive) • Opinion leaders © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens

Key Terms • Personality • Reference groups • Role • Self-concept • Social classes

Key Terms • Personality • Reference groups • Role • Self-concept • Social classes © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 Marketing for Marketing Hospitality forand Hospitality Tourism, and 4 th. Tourism, edition 4 th edition Kotler, Bowen, and. Makens