- Slides: 78
CHAPTER 6 Biomes and Aquatic Ecosystems
Too Much of a Good Thing? • Elephant populations in southern Africa declined sharply due to hunting but have made overwhelming comebacks within nature reserves and parks. • Some worry that elephant overpopulation is causing a decline in local biodiversity and damage to farms and infrastructure. • Many efforts to control elephant populations are being considered and put into practice. Talk About It Which elephant population control effort— moving them, sterilizing them, or culling them—do you think has the best chance for long-term, positive effects?
Lesson 6. 1 Defining Biomes Fossil evidence suggests that the frozen continent of Antarctica was once covered in temperate forest.
Lesson 6. 1 Defining Biomes What is a Biome? • Groups of terrestrial ecosystems that share biotic and abiotic conditions • Biomes are primarily defined by their ________ CLIMATE & typical ______ PLANT & _______ ANIMAL life.
Lesson 6. 1 Defining Biomes Climate AVERAGE conditions, • Climate – describes the _______ including _________ PRECIPITATION TEMPERATURE & _________ over long periods in a given area. • Weather - DAY-TO-DAY _______ conditions in Earth’s atmosphere Ex. Sunny & Humid
Lesson 6. 1 Defining Biomes Climate • Climatograph – climate diagram that shows conditions in a biome (temperature & precipitation). CELSIUS • Temperature is usually in _______ • F = 1. 8 C + 32 • Precipitation is usually in cm or mm. • 1 inch = 2. 54 cm • 1 inch = 25. 4 mm
Lesson 6. 1 Defining Biomes Climate • Each biome has a set of characteristic ORGANISMS _________ adapted to its particular climate conditions. • However, within any biome there is a variety of plants and animals due to SOIL TYPE variation in _______, _______ & ELEVATION __________ WIND EXPOSURE
Lesson 6. 1 Defining Biomes Earth’s Major Biomes
Lesson 6. 1 Defining Biomes Earth’s Major Biomes • Patches representing the same biome tend to occur at similar ________ LATITUDES • 10 primary biomes: • • • tropical rain forest dry forest savanna desert chaparral temperate rain forest temperate grassland chaparral boreal forest (taiga) tundra
Lesson 6. 1 Defining Biomes and Net Primary Production GROSS primary production: The rate at which primary • ______ producers undergo photosynthesis and produce usable energy NET primary production: The amount of organic matter • ______ (biomass) that remains after primary producers use some to carry out cellular respiration
Lesson 6. 1 Defining Biomes and Net Primary Production • Ecosystems vary in their net primary productivity. • WARM, _______ HIGHER WET biomes generally have ______net primary productivity than ____ COLD, _______ DRY biomes. • This should make sense because plants require SUNLIGHT ______ WATER & warm enough ________, temperatures to grow.
Lesson 6. 1 Defining Biomes and Net Primary Production
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Tundra, found at very high latitudes, is nearly as dry as a desert.
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Tropical Rain Forest • Year-round _____ WARM temperatures and at least _______ 2 m (6. 6 feet)precipitation a year • Near the equator, so the days are almost always 12 HOURS in length. ______ NUTRIENT POOR • Soil is generally __________
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Tropical Rain Forest • The tallest trees pop through the canopy and make up the EMERGENT LAYER __________ • Tall trees form a dense layer CANOPY which called the _______ keeps the forest warm and damp. • Short trees and plants make up UNDERSTORY and the _________ must compete for light. LARGE, FLAT • _________leaves are a common adaptation to increase sunlight intake.
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Tropical Rain Forest ADAPTATIONS EPIPHYTES - plants that • ________ grow on other plants instead of the soil. Ex. Orchids • Tall trees use ________ BUTTRESSES (large above ground roots) for support • Because there is not much _______ WIND to assist with pollination, plants have adapted bright, colorful flowers to attract pollinators.
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Tropical Rain Forest • Supports ____ MORE animal species than any other biome; animals tend to be highly ________. SPECIALIZED
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Tropical Dry Forest • Warm year-round, but rainfall is highly seasonal with a ____ RAINY & ____ DRY season.
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Tropical Dry Forest ADAPTATIONS DECIDUOUS - they lose their leaves and • Most trees are ________ cease photosynthesis part of the year. This helps reduce WATER LOSS _________. • Plants and animals exhibit adaptations (e. g. waxy leaf coating, deep roots, estivation, migration) that enable them to survive the dry season. • ________ ESTIVATION - animals enter a deep, sleeplike period of dormancy.
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Tropical Dry Forest ESTIVATION
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Savanna LESS precipitation than tropical dry forests, but • Receives _______ more than deserts; usually has a distinct RAINY ____ season
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Savanna GRASSES interspersed with groups of trees • _______ • Tree growth limited by frequent _____ WINDS and strong FIRES _____
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Savanna ADAPTATIONS • Plants are adapted to dry conditions; tend to be ________ DECIDUOUS with deep roots, thick bark, and _____ WAXY coatings on leaves. • Elephants drink 30 -50 gallons of water a day and so they must dig for water with their tusks. MIGRATE to find • Many animals _______ water, or burrow when water is scarce.
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Desert • Receives less than 25 cm (9. 8 in. ) of precipitation per year DRIEST biome) (______ DAY to ______. NIGHT • Temperatures vary widely from _______
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Desert ADAPTATIONS Did You Know? Cactus spines are modified leaves that protect the plant from thirsty animals. Photosynthesis occurs within the green stems and trunks. THICK leathery • Plants tend to have _____, leaves • Plants store water in their tissues (_________) SUCCULENTS Ex. Aloe • Some have shallow, spread out roots to gather water. • Some have deep tap roots (up to _____ 164 ft) SPINES (modified leaves) • Tough ______ discourage predators from eating them.
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Desert • Animals get most of their water from the _____ FOOD they eat, and they tend to be ________ NOCTURNAL (active at night). • Some have concentrated URINE ____. • Mammals have exaggerated __________ APPENDAGES to help regulate body temperature.
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Temperate Rain Forest • Year-round MODERATE _______ temperatures and heavy ______. RAINFALL PACIFIC NORTHWEST OF THE US • Largest extent found in ______________
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Temperate Rain Forest ADAPTATIONS • Characterized by tall _________ EVERGREEN trees, such as cedars and hemlocks, that don’t lose leaves annually; many are conifers (produce seed-bearing cones) • Forest floor is shaded, damp, covered in ____. MOSS Olympic Peninsula, Hoh River rain forest
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Temperate Rain Forest • Animals that require _______, MOISTURE such as amphibians, thrive here. VARIED diet • Squirrels, deer, elk and birds have a _____ which enables them to eat whatever food is available.
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Temperate (Deciduous) Forest • Precipitation ___________throughout the year EVENLY SPREAD COLD winters) HOT summers, _______ • Varied temperatures (____
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Temperate Forest ADAPTATIONS DECIDUOUS • Plants tend to be broad-leafed and ________. NUTRIENTS from annual leaf • Soil is enriched with _______ drop.
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Temperate Forest ADAPTATIONS HIBERNATE MIGRATE or _______ • Animals may _______ STORE FOOD to survive cold conditions. • Others ________ • _________ CAMOUFLAGE helps animals that are exposed during the winter due to lack of foliage survive.
Lesson 2. 2 Biomes Temperate Grassland (Prairie) PRECIPITATION and • Moderate seasonal __________ fairly extreme seasonal TEMPERATURES __________; droughts and fires common • Rich, fertile soil
Lesson 2. 2 Biomes Temperate Grassland (Prairie) ADAPTATIONS • Not enough precipitation to support large ______ TREES GRASSES which grow from their base, thrive • _______, despite droughts, fires, animals grazing. • Seeds are dispersed by the __________ STRONG WINDS • Soil tends to be rich in nutrients; most of world’s grasslands have been converted to _______. FARMLAND
Lesson 2. 2 Biomes Temperate Grassland (Prairie) COVER • Animals are adapted to deal with lack of _____. BURROWING • Some survive by _________. HUGE • Others survive by being _____.
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Chaparral (Mediterranean) MILD, WET winters • Highly seasonal conditions with ________ and ________ WARM, DRY summers DROUGHTS AND FIRES • Prolonged hot, dry periods; ____________ common • Soil is thin and not rich in nutrients
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Chaparral ADAPTATIONS • Plants are drought-resistant; many have thick, waxy HAIRS that trap _____ LEAVES or leaves with _____ moisture; _________ SUCCULENTS are common. BARK and deep • Plants may have thick __________ ROOTS to resist fire. FIRE to germinate. • Some plants require _____ OILY • Some chaparral plants contain ____ compounds that facilitate the spread of fire.
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Chaparral BURROW • Many animals _______. • Many are nocturnal to avoid heat. • Many have ________ OVERSIZED appendages.
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Boreal Forest (Taiga) LONG, COLD winters; SHORT, • _________________ COOL summers • Nutrient-poor, slightly acidic soils
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Boreal Forest (Taiga) ADAPTATIONS LOW species diversity • _____ WAXY needles and • Coniferous trees with _____ CONICAL shape, adapted to harsh, snowy conditions _______ are common.
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Boreal Forest (Taiga) • Animals feed, breed, and care for young mostly during short WARM _____ season • Year-round residents tend to have thick insulation and small extremities that maintain heat. WHITE COATS • Some animals change color. They grow ________ for the snowy season.
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Tundra COLD, DARK winters; relatively sunny and • Extremely ________ cool summers HIGH latitudes in the Northern • Found at very _____ Hemisphere
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Tundra WINDS nutrient-poor soil, and freezing • Harsh _____, temperatures limit plant growth; no tall trees; mosses and lichens common • Characterized by _________ PERMAFROST (underground soil that YEAR-ROUND is frozen __________)
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Tundra ADAPTATIONS • Low, scrubby vegetation and ground-hugging _______ LICHENS live here. MOSSES & _______ CARIBOU migrate to the tundra during the • Birds and _______ mild summer to feed on insects and lichens • Only a few species live here year-round (including musk oxen and polar bears).
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Polar Ice • Not classified as a biome • No land under polar ice in Northern Hemisphere; ice sits atop Antarctica in Southern Hemisphere • Very few plants; most life is in surrounding ocean NOTOTHENIOD – ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS
Lesson 6. 2 Biomes Mountains • Not classified as a biome • Mountain communities ELEVATION change with ________, similar to how biome communities change with latitude.
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems 75% of Earth’s surface is covered by water.
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Describing Aquatic Ecosystems • Normally, biomes are used to describe TERRESTRIAL __________ environments but 75% of Earth is covered in water. • Aquatic Ecosystems are described by their _______, SALINITY _______ and movement of DEPTH water.
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Describing Aquatic Ecosystems • Salinity: the amount of dissolved SALT ______ present in water. • Measured in parts per thousand (ppt) • Salt water = _____ppt 30 -50 • Fresh water = 0. 5 ppt or less 0. 5 to 30 • Brackish = Between _____ppt
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Describing Aquatic Ecosystems • Photosynthesis tends to be limited by _____ LIGHT availability, which is a function of depth and water clarity.
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Describing Aquatic Ecosystems • Aquatic ecosystem zones: photic, aphotic, benthic • Photic zone: Where there is enough light for ___________. PHOTOSYNTHESIS • Aphotic zone: Photosynthesis cannot occur because there is not enough sunlight • Benthic zone: Very ______ BOTTOM of the body of water
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Describing Aquatic Ecosystems • The photic zone has much more dissolved ______, OXYGEN so more life is found here (both producers and consumers). • Sunlight also causes water to be _______ WARMER UPPER • _______ layers of aquatic ecosystems tend to be warmer than _______ DEEPER layers
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Ponds, Lakes, Inland Seas • Salinity is less than 0. 5 ppt (parts per thousand) PONDS, LAKE AND INLAND SEAS • Includes ____________________ • Ponds and lakes are similar, except in ______ SIZE • Inland seas are huge and contain organisms adapted for _____ OPEN water. Ex. Great Lakes and The Caspian Sea
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Ponds, Lakes, Inland Seas • Ponds and lakes are divided horizontally into 2 zones: littoral and limnetic. SHALLOW enough for plants to • Littoral Zone – water is _______ grow from the mud to above the water’s surface SNAILS & CRAYFISH • Includes many invertebrates like __________ FARTHER • Limnetic Zone – ______from shore where there are no rooted plants
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Ponds, Lakes, Inland Seas
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands • Wetland - Area of land ________ FLOODED with water at least _____________ PART OF THE YEAR • Includes freshwater MARSHES, SWAMPS, BOGS & FENS ________________________ FLOW SLOWLY through wetlands • Water can either ___________ or into other bodies of water or, it can remain. YEAR-ROUND _______
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands • Freshwater Marsh – shallow-water wetland characterized by GRASSLIKE plants. Ex. Cattails and Bulrushes ________
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands • Swamp – shallow water wetland characterized by woody ___________ SHRUBS & TREES instead of grasses. Ex. Cypress Trees BEAVERS cause the formation of swamps by building • _______ DAMS across streams and causing flooding upstream. _____
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands • Bog – wetland characterized by low nutrients, acidic water and MOSS thick floating mats of vegetation (usually ____) • Fen – connected to a source of GROUNDWATER __________, less acidic and more nutrient rich
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Wetlands Benefits of Wetlands • They help prevent _______ FLOODING by absorbing excess water AQUIFERS • Recharge ________ POLLUTANTS & _________ SEDIMENTS • Filter _________ ANIMALS • Provide habitats for many _________
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Rivers and Streams • Bodies of surface water that flow DOWNHILL eventually ________, reaching an ocean or a landlocked body of water • TRIBUTARY _______ - a small river flowing into a larger one WATERSHED The area of • _________: land drained by a river and its tributaries
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Rivers and Streams • Rivers shape the ________ LANDSCAPE through which they run. SOURCE or beginning of ____ MOST rivers is high in • The ______ the mountains where melting snow collects due to GRAVITY ______ • Characteristics of the source COLD • _______ FULL OF OXYGEN • _____________ FEW ORGANISMS • _____________ A DEEP, STRAIGHT PATH • CUTS ___________________
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Rivers and Streams • Characteristics of a river as it leaves its source. WARMER • __________ SLOWER • __________ MORE ORGANISMS • __________ LESS OXYGEN • __________ MEANDERS • __________ CAN CREATE AN • __________ OXBOW LAKE
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Freshwater Ecosystems: Rivers and Streams • FLOOD _________– PLAIN area near a river’s course that is periodically flooded MOUTH – where the river empties • _____
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Estuaries OCEAN or a freshwater • Occur where a river flows into the _____ body of water BRACKISH ecosystems; • Coastal estuaries are ________ organisms must tolerate wide salinity and temperature ranges. • Some estuaries (like the ____________) THE GREAT LAKES contain only _________. FRESHWATER
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Estuaries Two types of estuary ecosystems: SALT MARSHES – along 1) __________ coasts at temperate latitudes Characterized by salt-tolerant grasses 2) MANGROVE ____________– FOREST along coasts at subtropical and tropical latitudes Include mangrove trees
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Estuaries Benefits of Estuaries: SOIL EROSION & _________ FLOODING 1) Prevent _________ SEA 2) Protective barrier between ____ LAND & _____ ANIMALS some which are 3) Home to many _______, commercially beneficial Destruction of Estuaries: • Many are being destroyed for housing and commerce • Flooding from Katrina was significantly worse where the salt marshes had been destroyed
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Oceans 71% of • All of the Earth’s major oceans combined occupy _______ the Earth’s surface. • If we evaporated all of the water from the oceans, there would 200 FEET deep left. be a layer of salt approximately ______
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Oceans • Currents are driven by WATER ______________ TEMPERATURE and ______________, DENSITY DIFFERENCES wind, and gravity. DECREASES • Water density increases as temperature ________ INCREASES and salinity (salt content) _________. • Heavier (____________) COLDER & SALTIER water sinks WARMER & LESS SALTY • Lighter (_________________) water remains near the surface.
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Oceans
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Oceans VERTICAL • Surface winds and heating generate ________ currents that transport nutrients and oxygen. • _________ UPWELLING - the flow of cold, nutrient rich water towards the surface. It occurs when horizontal currents ________ DIVERGE (flow apart). DOWNWELLING - the flow of warm water, full of • __________ dissolved gases away from the surface, into the deep ocean. It occurs when horizontal ocean currents ________ CONVERGE (flow together).
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Ocean Ecosystems
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Ocean Ecosystems • INTERTIDAL _______: Highly diverse; extreme range of temperature, moisture, and salinity.
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Ocean Ecosystems NERITIC Extends from the low tide mark to the edge of • ______: the ______________. CONTINENTAL SHELF • Two productive ecosystems exist here: FOREST - large brown algae grows from the 1) KELP ________ continental shelf. CORAL REEF - Exists in subtropical and tropical 2) ________ CALCIUM CARBONATE waters. A mass of ______________ composed of SKELETONS _______ of marine coral.
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Ocean Ecosystems CONTINENTAL • Open ocean: Begins at the edge of the __________ shelf 90% of the Earth’s oceans • Makes up _______ LIGHT PENETRATION • Low productivity due to low ______________ • ___________ PHYTOPLANKTON are at base of food chain • Includes jelly fish, whales, sea turtles, squids, large fish & sharks.
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Ocean Ecosystems • In the aphotic open-ocean, animals have many adaptations to help them survive. CARCASSES • Ex. SCAVENGE _______________ BIOLUMINESCENCE - sometimes a symbiotic • Ex. ____________ relationship with bacteria
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Ocean Ecosystems
Lesson 6. 3 Aquatic Ecosystems Ocean Ecosystems • Benthic Ecosystems around ____________ HYDROTHERMAL vents (hot water flows out from the sea floor) are home to come strange organisms. • Bacteria use chemicals to make energy (AKA ____________) CHEMOSYNTHESIS TUBEWORMS are in a symbiotic • Other organisms like __________ relationship with the bacteria and survive using the energy they make.