Chapter 5 Language
French Road Signs, Québec
Origin, Diffusion, & Dialects of English • Origin and diffusion of English – English colonies – Origin of English in England • Dialects of English – Dialects in England – Differences between British & American English – Dialects in the United States
English Speaking Countries Fig. 5 -1: English is an official language in 50 countries, including some in which it is not the most widely spoken language. It is also used and understood in many others.
Invasions of England 5 th - 11 th centuries Fig. 5 -2: The groups that brought what became English to England included Jutes, Angles, Saxons, and Vikings. The Normans later brought French vocabulary to English.
Old & Middle English Dialects Fig. 5 -3: The main dialect regions of Old English before the Norman invasion persisted to some extent in the Middle English dialects through the 1400 s.
Scene from “My Fair Lady”
Dialects in the Eastern U. S. Fig. 5 -4: Hans Kurath divided the eastern U. S. into three dialect regions, whose distribution is similar to that of house types (Fig. 4 -9).
The Indo-European Language Family • Branches of Indo-European – Germanic branch – Indo-Iranian branch – Balto-Slavic branch – Romance branch • Origin and diffusion of Indo-European – Kurgan and Anatolian theories
Indo-European Language Family Fig. 5 -5: The main branches of the Indo-European language family include Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic, and Indo-Iranian.
Russian Sign Russian is an Indo-European language written in the Cyrillic alphabet, originally brought to Russia by Greek missionaries
Germanic Branch of Indo-European Fig. 5 -6: The Germanic branch today is divided into North and West Germanic groups. English is in the West Germanic group.
South Asian Languages & Language Families Fig. 5 -7: Indo-European is the largest of four main language families in South Asia. The country of India has 18 official languages.
Romance Branch of Indo-European Fig. 5 -8: The Romance branch includes three of the world’s 12 most widely spoken languages (Spanish, French, and Portuguese), as well as a number of smaller languages and dialects.
Signs in Barcelona, Spain Signs in Barcelona are written both in Catalán (top) and Spanish (bottom).
Port-au-Prince, Haitian Creole and French are both official languages in Haiti, although English is also used.
Kurgan Theory of Indo-European Origin Fig. 5 -9: In the Kurgan theory, Proto-Indo-European diffused from the Kurgan hearth north of the Caspian Sea, beginning about 7000 years ago.
Anatolian Hearth Theory of Indo. European Origin Fig. 5 -10: In the Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European originated in Turkey before the Kurgans and diffused through agricultural expansion.
Distribution of Other Language Families • Classification of languages • Distribution of language families – Sino-Tibetan language family – Other East and Southeast Asian language families – Afro-Asiatic language family – Altaic and Uralic language families – African language families
Language Families of the World Fig. 5 -11: Distribution of the world’s main language families. Languages with more than 50 million speakers are named.
Major Language Families Percentage of World Population Fig. 5 -11 a: The percentage of world population speaking each of the main language families. Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan together represent almost 75% of the world’s people.
Language Family Trees Fig. 5 -12: Family trees and estimated numbers of speakers for the main world language families.
Chinese Ideograms Fig. 5 -13: Chinese language ideograms mostly represent concepts rather than sounds. The two basic characters at the top can be built into more complex words.
Language Families of Africa Fig. 5 -14: The 1000 or more languages of Africa are divided among five main language families, including Austronesian languages in Madagascar.
Languages of Nigeria Fig. 5 -15: More than 200 languages are spoken in Nigeria, the largest country in Africa (by population). English, considered neutral, is the official language.
Language Diversity & Uniformity • Preserving language diversity – – Hebrew: reviving extinct languages Celtic: preserving endangered languages Multilingual states Isolated languages • Global dominance of English – English as a lingua franca – Diffusion to other languages
Ireland Road Signs Road signs in Ireland are written in both English and Gaelic (Goidelic).
Language Divisions in Belgium Fig. 5 -16: There has been much tension in Belgium between Flemings, who live in the north and speak Flemish, a Dutch dialect, and Walloons, who live in the south and speak French.
Bookstore in Brussels, Belgium The name of the bookstore is printed in both French (top) and Flemish (bottom).
Jerusalem Street sign A street in Jerusalem was renamed New York after Sept. 11, 2001. The street name is shown in Hebrew, Arabic, and English
Language Areas in Switzerland Fig. 5 -17: Switzerland remains peaceful with four official languages and a decentralized government structure.
French-English Boundary in Canada Fig. 5 -18: Although Canada is bilingual, French speakers are concentrated in the province of Quebec, where 80% of the population speaks French.
Online Population, 1996 - 2005 Fig. 5 -1. 1: English is still the largest language on the internet, but there has been rapid growth in many others, especially Chinese.
E-Commerce Languages 2000 & 2004 Fig 5 -1. 2: English and English-speaking countries still dominate ecommerce, but other languages are growing rapidly.
French Signs in Québec City
Spanish Signs in New York City