Chapter 5 Civil Rights Civil Rights all rights

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Chapter 5 Civil Rights

Chapter 5 Civil Rights

Civil Rights • all rights rooted in the Fourteenth Amendments’ guarantee of equal protection

Civil Rights • all rights rooted in the Fourteenth Amendments’ guarantee of equal protection under the law • what the government must do to ensure equal protection • what the government must do to ensure freedom from discrimination

African-Americans and the Consequences of Slavery • In apportioning congressional representation based on population,

African-Americans and the Consequences of Slavery • In apportioning congressional representation based on population, the constitution refers to free persons and “other persons” (or slaves) • For purposes of representation, a slave was equal to 3/5 of a free person • Supreme Court confirms constitutionality of slavery in Dred Scott v. Sanford (1847)

The Civil War Amendments • Thirteenth Amendment (1865) – neither slavery nor involuntary servitude

The Civil War Amendments • Thirteenth Amendment (1865) – neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist in the United States’ • Fourteenth Amendment (1868) – all persons born or naturalized in the United State are citizens – states cannot abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens – all persons (whether or not they are citizens) are entitled to due process – all persons are entitled to equal protection • Fifteenth Amendment (1870) – the right to vote shall not be denied because of race, color or previous condition of servitude

Key Points of the Civil Rights Acts of 1865 to 1875 The Civil Rights

Key Points of the Civil Rights Acts of 1865 to 1875 The Civil Rights Act of 1866 • extended citizenship to anyone born in the United States • gave African Americans full equality before the law • authorized the president to enforce the act through use of force The Enforcement Act of 1870 • set out specific penalties for interfering with the right to vote

Key Points of the Civil Rights Acts of 1865 to 1875 (cont. ) The

Key Points of the Civil Rights Acts of 1865 to 1875 (cont. ) The Anti-Ku Klux Klan Act (1872) • made it a federal crime to deprive an individual of his or her rights The Second Civil Rights Act (1875) • everyone is entitled to equal enjoyment of public accommodation and places of public amusement • imposed penalties for violators

The Civil Rights Act were nullified through: • The Civil Rights Cases (1883) –

The Civil Rights Act were nullified through: • The Civil Rights Cases (1883) – the Supreme Court rules that the 14 th amendment only prevents official discriminatory acts by states, not by private individuals • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – stated that segregation did not violate the 14 th amendment – established the separate-but-equal doctrine – paved the way constitutionally for a system of racial segregation developed, especially in the South

Barriers to voting by African Americans: • the white primary – a state primary

Barriers to voting by African Americans: • the white primary – a state primary election in which only whites may vote – allowed because Southern politicians claimed political parties were private entities – was outlawed by the Supreme Court in 1944 (Smith v. Allwright) • grandfather clause – restricting voting to individuals who could prove that their grandfathers had voter prior to 1867 – was used to exempt whites from poll taxes – was used to exempt whites from literacy tests

The End of the “Separate But Equal” Doctrine • Brown v. Board of Education

The End of the “Separate But Equal” Doctrine • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) – Supreme Court rules public school segregation violates the 14 th amendment – overturns Plessy v. Ferguson • Brown v. Board of Education (1955) – orders desegregation “with all deliberate speed” • Court –ordered busing – transporting African American children to white schools and white children to African American schools

Barriers to voting by African Americans (cont. ): • poll taxes – required the

Barriers to voting by African Americans (cont. ): • poll taxes – required the payment of a fee to vote – intended to disenfranchise poor African Americans – was outlawed in national elections by the 24 th amendment – was outlawed in all elections by the Supreme Court in 1966 • literacy tests -- required potential voters to read, recite or interpret complicated texts – intended to disenfranchise African Americans

Modern Civil Rights Legislation • Civil Rights Act of 1964 – forbade discrimination on

Modern Civil Rights Legislation • Civil Rights Act of 1964 – forbade discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, gender and national origin in • voter registration • public accommodations • public schools – expanded the power of the Civil Rights Commission – withheld funds from programs administered in a discriminatory way – established the right to equality of opportunity in employment (created the EEOC)

Modern Civil Rights Legislation (cont. ) • Civil Rights Act of 1968 – forbade

Modern Civil Rights Legislation (cont. ) • Civil Rights Act of 1968 – forbade discrimination in housing • Voting Rights Act of 1965 – outlawed discriminatory voter registration tests – authorized federal registration and administration of voting where discrimination took place • resulted in massive voter registration drives of African Americans in the South

Women’s Struggle for Equal Rights • Women’s Suffrage Movement – was connected to the

Women’s Struggle for Equal Rights • Women’s Suffrage Movement – was connected to the abolition movement – suffragists organized the first women’s right convention at Seneca Falls, NY in 1848 – established women’s suffrage associations – finally won passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920

Women’s Struggle for Equal Rights (cont. ) • The Modern Women’s Movement – spurred

Women’s Struggle for Equal Rights (cont. ) • The Modern Women’s Movement – spurred in by the publication of Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique ( 1963) – connected to the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960’s – argued for ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment • failed to win the necessary states for ratification – has targeted gender discrimination by challenging policies and laws in federal courts • has advocated and encouraged an increasingly prominent role for women in government and politics

Affirmative Action • a policy in educational admissions or job hiring • gives special

Affirmative Action • a policy in educational admissions or job hiring • gives special consideration or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups • is an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination

Gender Based Discrimination in the Work Place • gender discrimination – any practice, policy

Gender Based Discrimination in the Work Place • gender discrimination – any practice, policy or procedure that denies equality of treatment to an individual or group because of gender – prohibited by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 – applies even to “protective policies” • sexual harassment – unwanted physical or verbal conduct or abuse of a sexual nature that – interferes with a recipient’s job performance OR creates a hostile environment OR carries and implicit or explicit threat of adverse employment consequences • wage discrimination – women earn 76 cents for every $1. 00 earned by men

Hot Links to Selected Internet Resources: • Book’s Companion Site: http: //politicalscience. wadsworth. com/

Hot Links to Selected Internet Resources: • Book’s Companion Site: http: //politicalscience. wadsworth. com/ schmidtbrief 2004 • Wadsworth’s Political Science Site: • http: //politicalscience. wadsworth. com • American Civil Liberties Union: http: //www. aclu. org • The Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers Project: http: //www. stanford. edu/group/King • NAAPC: http: //www. naapc. org • Feminist Majority Foundation: http: //www. feminist. org • ADA Hotlinks and Documents Center: http: //janweb. icdi. wvu. edu/kinder