Chapter 48 Spiritual Health Copyright 2004 by Delmar

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Chapter 48 Spiritual Health Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning,

Chapter 48 Spiritual Health Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc.

Spirituality § Most definitions of spirituality include the common threads of transcendence, connection, balance,

Spirituality § Most definitions of spirituality include the common threads of transcendence, connection, balance, and purpose. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 2

Spirituality § Transcendence involves finding meaning larger than one’s individual self and life. §

Spirituality § Transcendence involves finding meaning larger than one’s individual self and life. § Transcendence allows a person to love unconditionally, allowing that person to work for “larger” issues. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 3

Spirituality § Connection is integration of all of the aspects of being human. §

Spirituality § Connection is integration of all of the aspects of being human. § To be connected is to feel a part of the universe and in relationship with all creation. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 4

Spirituality § Balance is often defined as harmony. § Purpose is a person’s understanding

Spirituality § Balance is often defined as harmony. § Purpose is a person’s understanding of the impact of his or her life. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 5

Religion § A system of beliefs and practices that usually involves a community of

Religion § A system of beliefs and practices that usually involves a community of likeminded people Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 6

Overview of Major World Religions § Phophetic religions are those which believe in a

Overview of Major World Religions § Phophetic religions are those which believe in a personal God who rules the universe. • Judaism • Christianity • Islam Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 7

Overview of Major World Religions § Mystic religions are those in which God is

Overview of Major World Religions § Mystic religions are those in which God is a principle, rather than a being. § This principle is the source of all life. • • Hinduism Buddhism Sikhism Shintoism Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 8

Overview of Major World Religions § Atheists are those who do not believe in

Overview of Major World Religions § Atheists are those who do not believe in the existence of a God. § Agnostics are those who do not know if a God exists or not. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 9

Comparing Common Concepts Among Religions § Comparing Common Concepts Among Religions • Approach to

Comparing Common Concepts Among Religions § Comparing Common Concepts Among Religions • Approach to health and illness • Beliefs about healing • Conceptualizations of birth, death, illness, and diet Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 10

Cultural Practices and Religion § A person’s culture does not necessarily determine his or

Cultural Practices and Religion § A person’s culture does not necessarily determine his or her religious orientation. § Culture and religion do often work together to define health, illness, and healing practices. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 11

Descriptions of Specific Religions § Christianity • Prophetic religion • Follow teachings of Jesus

Descriptions of Specific Religions § Christianity • Prophetic religion • Follow teachings of Jesus Christ • Opportunity for eternal life Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 12

Descriptions of Specific Religions § Islam • Belief in prophet Muhammed • Duty to

Descriptions of Specific Religions § Islam • Belief in prophet Muhammed • Duty to worship and obey God • Pray five times a day Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 13

Descriptions of Specific Religions § Hinduism • Basic Hindu thought is mystic. • Belief

Descriptions of Specific Religions § Hinduism • Basic Hindu thought is mystic. • Belief in reincarnation • The behavior of a person in a particular life determines the position the soul will have in the next life. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 14

Descriptions of Specific Religions § Buddhism • • • Splinter group from Hinduism Remains

Descriptions of Specific Religions § Buddhism • • • Splinter group from Hinduism Remains a mystic tradition No belief in any God “The Buddha, ” is the “enlightened one. ” Meditation Path to Enlightenment Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 15

Descriptions of Specific Religions § Sikhism • Mystic religion • Attempts to reconcile a

Descriptions of Specific Religions § Sikhism • Mystic religion • Attempts to reconcile a belief in one God with a belief in rebirth • Sikhs do not believe in prophets. • Equality of all people is a central tenet. • The body should remain intact as given by God. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 16

Descriptions of Specific Religions § Judaism • Both a religion and an ethnicity •

Descriptions of Specific Religions § Judaism • Both a religion and an ethnicity • A prophetic religion concerned with belief in one God • Appropriate behavior in relationship to God • Ten Commandments is the foundation for the morality of the Western world. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 17

Spirituality in Nursing Theory § The lack of “scientific objectivity” that is inherent in

Spirituality in Nursing Theory § The lack of “scientific objectivity” that is inherent in spirituality may account for the general absence of spirituality in nursing theory. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 18

Watson’s Theory of Nursing and Spirituality § The human soul is an essential part

Watson’s Theory of Nursing and Spirituality § The human soul is an essential part of each human being. § Transpersonal caring relationship • The nurse promotes healing by assisting a person to find meaning and autonomy. • The nurse and client develop a shared experience that leads to healing. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 19

Connection Between Spirituality and Health § Spiritual Nursing Care • Discomfort in exploring spiritual

Connection Between Spirituality and Health § Spiritual Nursing Care • Discomfort in exploring spiritual concerns with clients may reflect personal confusion or rejection of religion. • A first step in assisting others with spiritual concerns is to assess one’s own personal spiritual beliefs. • Use of a spiritual self-assessment tool Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 20

Spiritual Assessment § Spiritual Development Across the Life Span • Fowler’s Stages on spiritual

Spiritual Assessment § Spiritual Development Across the Life Span • Fowler’s Stages on spiritual development point out that spiritual needs and understanding will change as a person ages. • At every age, spiritual concerns may be extremely important. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 21

Spiritual Assessment § General Spiritual Assessment • • Person’s concept of God or a

Spiritual Assessment § General Spiritual Assessment • • Person’s concept of God or a spiritual Being Spiritual beliefs and practices Any spiritual questioning or doubts Source of spiritual strength Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 22

Spiritual Assessment for Children § Spiritual questions and concerns § Beliefs about illness as

Spiritual Assessment for Children § Spiritual questions and concerns § Beliefs about illness as a punishment § Fear of death and what will happen after death § Family’s religious values and practices Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 23

Spiritual Assessment for Adolescents § May not have the same beliefs and practices as

Spiritual Assessment for Adolescents § May not have the same beliefs and practices as their parents § Relationships are key to understanding of self and others. § Relationships with others form the foundation of spiritual beliefs. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 24

Spiritual Assessment for Adults § Values that may have been important in adolescence may

Spiritual Assessment for Adults § Values that may have been important in adolescence may change radically as a person matures. § Older adults tend to be more involved in religious activities and to state that religion is very important in their daily lives. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 25

Spiritual Assessment for Adults § Frequency of praying increases with age. Copyright 2004 by

Spiritual Assessment for Adults § Frequency of praying increases with age. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 26

Nursing Diagnoses § Risk for Spiritual Distress § Readiness for Enhanced Spiritual Well. Being

Nursing Diagnoses § Risk for Spiritual Distress § Readiness for Enhanced Spiritual Well. Being Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 27

Outcome Identification and Planning § Client participation in identifying outcomes § Person maintains feelings

Outcome Identification and Planning § Client participation in identifying outcomes § Person maintains feelings of connectedness and peace § Continues activities that promote meaning in his or her life Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 28

Spiritual Interventions § § Providing support and encouragement Conveying a caring presence Listening Calling

Spiritual Interventions § § Providing support and encouragement Conveying a caring presence Listening Calling for the person’s spiritual counselor § Praying with the client if they are comfortable with prayer § Touch Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 29

Spiritual Interventions Across the Life Span § Children • Use of stories • Ritual

Spiritual Interventions Across the Life Span § Children • Use of stories • Ritual § Adolescents • Help with discovering values and actions important for them • Encouraging exploration of meaning and purpose in life within a framework of relationship Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 30

Spiritual Interventions Across the Lifespan § Older Adults • Older adults who have an

Spiritual Interventions Across the Lifespan § Older Adults • Older adults who have an active religious/spiritual life appear to be healthier, and more likely to heal. • Frequency of prayer increases with age. - Making it possible for an older person to maintain usual religious/spiritual observances Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 31

Spiritual Interventions Across the Lifespan § Those who are dying have extraordinary spiritual needs.

Spiritual Interventions Across the Lifespan § Those who are dying have extraordinary spiritual needs. • • Companionship Connection with important others Finishing important “business” Life review Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 32

Spiritual Evaluation § Expression of more spiritual comfort § Expression of satisfaction with spirituality

Spiritual Evaluation § Expression of more spiritual comfort § Expression of satisfaction with spirituality § Demonstrates some of the defining characteristics of spiritual well-being § Client is able to describe a number of support systems to use when spiritual conflict arises. Copyright 2004 by Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. 33