Chapter 4 Values Attitudes and Job Satisfaction ORGANIZATIONAL

  • Slides: 21
Download presentation
Chapter 4 Values, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H

Chapter 4 Values, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S E L E V E N T H © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E D I T I O N WWW. PRENHALL. COM/ROBBINS Power. Point Presentation by Charlie Cook

Highlights of Previous Lecture No. 3 Part II The Link Between Perceptions and Individual

Highlights of Previous Lecture No. 3 Part II The Link Between Perceptions and Individual Decision Making Rationale Decision Making Model Steps in Rationale Decision-Making Model Three Components of Creativity (Expertise, Skills, Motivation) How are Decisions Actually Made in Organization (Bounded Rationality, How/why problems Identified, Alternative development) • Common Biases and Errors (overconfidence, Anchoring, Confirmation, Availability, Representative Biases) • Intuition, Decision-Style Model, Organizational Constraints DM, Cultural Differences, Ethical Decision Making. • • • © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 1

OBJECTIVES LEARNING After studying this chapter 4, you should be able to: 1. Contrast

OBJECTIVES LEARNING After studying this chapter 4, you should be able to: 1. Contrast terminal and instrumental values. 2. List the dominant values in today’s workforce. 3. Identify the five value dimensions of national culture. 4. Contrast the three components of an attitude. 5. Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior. 6. Identify the role consistency plays in attitudes. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 2

O B J E C T I V E S (cont’d) LEARNING After studying

O B J E C T I V E S (cont’d) LEARNING After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 7. State the relationship between job satisfaction and behavior. 8. Identify four employee responses to dissatisfaction. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 3

Values Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is

Values Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end -state of existence. Value System A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 4

Importance of Values • Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of individuals

Importance of Values • Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of individuals and cultures. • Influence our perception of the world around us. • Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong. ” • Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 5

Types of Values at workplace – Milton Rokeach Value Survey (1973) Terminal Values (What

Types of Values at workplace – Milton Rokeach Value Survey (1973) Terminal Values (What do I want to achieve? ) Preferred end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. Instrumental Values (How do I want to achieve it? ) Preferable modes of conduct/behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 6

Values in the Rokeach Survey Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New

Values in the Rokeach Survey Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973). E X H I B I T 3– 1 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 7

Values in the Rokeach Survey (cont’d) Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values

Values in the Rokeach Survey (cont’d) Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973). E X H I B I T 3– 1 (cont’d) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 8

Mean Value Rankings of Executives, Union Members, and Activists Source: Based on W. C.

Mean Value Rankings of Executives, Union Members, and Activists Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, “The Values of Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Normative Implications, ” in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (eds. ) Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123– 44. E X H I B I T 3– 2 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 9

Compulsory Readings Greenwood, R. A. and Murphy, Jr. , E. F. (2008) An Investigation

Compulsory Readings Greenwood, R. A. and Murphy, Jr. , E. F. (2008) An Investigation of Generational Values in the Workplace: Divergence, Convergence, and Implications for Leadership, International Leadership Journal <available at \FileserverShahnawaz AdilOBCompulsory ReadingsTerminal and Instrumental values. . . (go to page 58). pdf> © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 10

Worksheet: Dominant Work Values in Today’s Workforce w. r. t. Pakistan Cohort Senior Citizens

Worksheet: Dominant Work Values in Today’s Workforce w. r. t. Pakistan Cohort Senior Citizens Entered the workforce 1950 s or early 1960 s Approximate current age 60+ Dominant Work Values Hard-working; least technology-oriented; conservative; prefer to work in isolation with own hands; conforming (i. e. meeting the requirements); disciplined; long-term commitment (i. e. loyalty) with the firm… 3– 11

Organizational Stakeholders © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 12

Organizational Stakeholders © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 12

Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures Compulsory Readings \FileserverShahnawaz AdilOBCompulsory Readings1. Geert Hofstede National cultures

Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures Compulsory Readings \FileserverShahnawaz AdilOBCompulsory Readings1. Geert Hofstede National cultures in 4 dimensions. pdf Power Distance The extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. low distance: relatively equal distribution high distance: extremely unequal distribution © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 13

PD – in detail A power distance index (PDI) has been composed of the

PD – in detail A power distance index (PDI) has been composed of the country scores on the following three questionnaire items, which are inter-correlated with coefficients between 0. 54 and 0. 67 {see also Hofstede, 1977, 1979 a). (1) the percentage of subordinates who perceive that their boss makes his decisions in an autocratic or paternalistic (persuasive) way; (2) subordinates' perceptions that employees in general (their colleagues) are afraid to disagree with superiors (mean score on a five-point scale from 1 = very frequently to 5 = very seldom, multiplied by 25 to make it comparable with the percentage scores for questions 1 and 3); (3) the percentage of subordinates who do not prefer a boss who makes his decisions in a consultative way, but who prefer a boss who decides either autocratically or paternalistically or, on the other hand, who does not decide himself, but goes along with the majority of his subordinates © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 14

Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Individualism Collectivism The degree to which people prefer to act as

Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Individualism Collectivism The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than a member of groups. A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 15

Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Achievement The extent to which societal values are characterized by assertiveness,

Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Achievement The extent to which societal values are characterized by assertiveness, materialism and competition. Nurturing The extent to which societal values emphasize relationships and concern for others. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 16

Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which a society feels threatened by

Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 17

Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Long-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift,

Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Long-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence. Short-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfilling social obligations. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3– 18

The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures GLOBE stands for Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior

The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures GLOBE stands for Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Compulsory Reading: M. Javidan and R. J. House, “Cultural Acumen for the Global Manager: Lessons from Project GLOBE, ” Organizational Dynamics, Spring 2001, Volume: 29 Issue: 4, pp. 289 – 305. (\FileserverShahnawaz AdilOBCompulsory ReadingsGLOBE - Cultural Acumen for the Global Manager - Lessons from Project GLOBE. pdf) and Page 432 to 435 from OB Fred Luthans’s book , 11 th edition 1. Assertiveness – the degree to which individuals are assertive, confrontational, and aggressive in their relationships with others. 2. Future Orientation – the extent to which individuals engage in futureoriented behaviors such as delaying gratification, planning, and investing in the future. 3. Gender egalitarianism (or differentiation) – expressed as the degree a collective minimizes gender inequality. 4. Uncertainty avoidance – the extent the society, organization, or groups rely on norms, rules, and procedures to alleviate the unpredictability of future events. 3– 19

The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures (cont’d…) 5. Power distance – the degree to

The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures (cont’d…) 5. Power distance – the degree to which members of a collective expect power to be distributed equally. 6. Individual/collectivism (or Institutional Collectivism) – the degree to which organizational and societal institutional practices encourage and reward the collective distribution of resources and collective actions. 7. In-group collectivism – the degree to which individuals express pride, loyalty, and cohesiveness in their organizations or families. 8. Performance orientation – suggested by the degree to which a collective encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence. 9. Humane orientation – the degree to which a collective encourages and rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, generous, caring, and kind to others. 3– 20