Chapter 4 Fermentation Fermentation CHAPTER Fermentation the breakdown

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Chapter 4: Fermentation

Chapter 4: Fermentation

Fermentation CHAPTER • Fermentation = the breakdown of compound molecules in organic substances under

Fermentation CHAPTER • Fermentation = the breakdown of compound molecules in organic substances under the effect of yeast or bacteria • It starts when flour and water come into a contact • In baking, it occurs when some of the sugar or glucide is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide under the effect of commercial or natural yeast and bacteria 4

Fermentation CHAPTER • Sugar Transformation – Flour contains various types of glucides – More

Fermentation CHAPTER • Sugar Transformation – Flour contains various types of glucides – More complex glucides must be degraded by enzymes or organic substances – Less complex glucides are used as is 4

Fermentation: Sugar Transformation CHAPTER • Complex Glucides – Saccharose and Maltose – Represent 1%

Fermentation: Sugar Transformation CHAPTER • Complex Glucides – Saccharose and Maltose – Represent 1% of flour – During the first 30 minutes of fermentation time, Enzyme breaks them down into simple sugars – Saccharose breaks down into glucose and Fructose – Maltose breaks down into glucose 4

Fermentation: Sugar Transformation • Very Complex Glucides – Starch – Represents 70% of flour

Fermentation: Sugar Transformation • Very Complex Glucides – Starch – Represents 70% of flour – Two types: Amylose and Amylopectin – Amylose is broken down into maltose by beta amylase enzyme – Amylopectin is broken down into dextrin by alpha amylase enzyme, and dextrin is degraded into maltose CHAPTER 4

Fermentation: Sugar Transformation • Simple Glucides – Glucose and Fructose – Represent 0. 5%

Fermentation: Sugar Transformation • Simple Glucides – Glucose and Fructose – Represent 0. 5% of flour – First sugar to be used in the fermentation – Used within the first 30 minutes of the fermentation process – Easy transformation to alcohol and carbon dioxide – Starch is damaged during the milling process – Damaged parts of starch (from the milling process) absorb water, and triggers the enzymatic activity CHAPTER 4

Fermentation CHAPTER • Importance of Enzymatic Balance in the Flour – Alpha and Beta

Fermentation CHAPTER • Importance of Enzymatic Balance in the Flour – Alpha and Beta amylase enzymes naturally present in the flour – The germination of the wheat varies the amount of alpha amylase – When sprouting, the germ sends enzymes to the endosperm, which transform the complex components into smaller nutrients that are immediately usable by the germ 4

Fermentation CHAPTER • 4 Effects of Fermentation Activity on Dough 1. Rising of the

Fermentation CHAPTER • 4 Effects of Fermentation Activity on Dough 1. Rising of the dough due to the carbon dioxide production – Internal accumulation of gas stretches the gluten structure of the dough – The dough’s impermeability, extensibility and elasticity, the gluten is capable to retain the gas

Fermentation CHAPTER • 4 Effects of Fermentation Activity on Dough 2. Acidification of dough

Fermentation CHAPTER • 4 Effects of Fermentation Activity on Dough 2. Acidification of dough – p. H lowers due to the production of organic acids – Delays staling of the dough and increase shelf life – More elasticity, less extensibility

Fermentation CHAPTER • Factors Affecting Fermentation – Amount of yeast – Amount of Salt

Fermentation CHAPTER • Factors Affecting Fermentation – Amount of yeast – Amount of Salt and sugar – Temperature – Dough p. H 4

Fermentation: Factors Affecting Fermentation • Amount of Yeast – The amount of yeast must

Fermentation: Factors Affecting Fermentation • Amount of Yeast – The amount of yeast must be limited to control fermentation • Temperature – Yeast is highly active at higher temperature, and slower at lower temperature – Desired Dough Temperature: 76°F CHAPTER 4

Fermentation: Factors Affecting Fermentation • Amount of Salt and Sugar – Salt slows down

Fermentation: Factors Affecting Fermentation • Amount of Salt and Sugar – Salt slows down fermentation activity – Generally, salt is 2% of the flour weight – A small amount of sugar (5%) speeds up the fermentation process (simple sugar = nutrients) – A larger amount (13% or more) will slow down fermentation CHAPTER 4

Fermentation: Factors Affecting Fermentation • Dough p. H – Commercial yeast works best when

Fermentation: Factors Affecting Fermentation • Dough p. H – Commercial yeast works best when p. H is 4 -6 – Natural yeast prefers lower p. H CHAPTER 4

Fermentation CHAPTER • Relationship between Fermentation and Dough Handling – Bread characteristics are determined

Fermentation CHAPTER • Relationship between Fermentation and Dough Handling – Bread characteristics are determined by the baking process – Baking process: Dough Handling (mixing, dividing, shaping, scoring, baking) and Fermentation Time (dough evolves by itself) – The baking processes are interconnected, and one affects on others 4

Fermentation CHAPTER • Relationship between First Fermentation and Mixing – A long fermentation provides

Fermentation CHAPTER • Relationship between First Fermentation and Mixing – A long fermentation provides increased flavor and shelf life to the final product – During mixing, the hook develops the gluten by stretching and folding – The longer the mixing, the stronger the gluten – Mixing time needs to be decreased to have a long fermentation time 4

Fermentation CHAPTER • Relationship between First Fermentation and Mixing – Short mixing time limits

Fermentation CHAPTER • Relationship between First Fermentation and Mixing – Short mixing time limits oxidation of the dough – Requires folding technique to compensate the underdeveloped gluten – Folding reorganizes the gluten structure – It expulses the gas accumulated in the dough • Relationship between First Fermentation and Dividing – Gluten strands become more fragile – avoid damaging the dough during dividing 4

Fermentation CHAPTER • Relationship between First Fermentation and Dividing – Gluten strands become more

Fermentation CHAPTER • Relationship between First Fermentation and Dividing – Gluten strands become more fragile – avoid damaging the dough during dividing • Relationship between Dough Characteristics and Pre-shaping – If the dough have insufficient or excessive strength, it can be corrected during pre-shaping 4

Fermentation CHAPTER • Relationship between Dough Characteristics and Shaping 4 – The dough characteristics

Fermentation CHAPTER • Relationship between Dough Characteristics and Shaping 4 – The dough characteristics can be balanced during shaping: last opportunity • Relationship between Final Proof and Shaping – Dough shaped through machine takes longer time to ferment – Hand-shaped dough takes shorter time to proof

Fermentation CHAPTER • Relationship between Dough Characteristics and Scoring – Over-proofed dough: shallow scoring

Fermentation CHAPTER • Relationship between Dough Characteristics and Scoring – Over-proofed dough: shallow scoring – Under-proofed dough: deep scoring – The way to score changes the appearance of the final product: choose the scoring according to the dough characteristics 4

Fermentation CHAPTER • Preferments – Dough or batter created from a portion of the

Fermentation CHAPTER • Preferments – Dough or batter created from a portion of the total formula’s flour, water, yeast and sometimes salt – Improves bread quality, strength and aroma • Types of Preferments – Pre-fermented Dough – Poolish – Sponge – Biga 4

Types of Preferment CHAPTER • Pre-Fermented Dough – Dough made with flour, water, yeast

Types of Preferment CHAPTER • Pre-Fermented Dough – Dough made with flour, water, yeast and salt – A piece of dough from previous mix can be used as a pre-fermented dough • Poolish – – Derived by Polish bakers Choice of preferment for baguette dough 100% hydration Provides mild acidity and extensibility 4

Types of Preferments CHAPTER • Sponge – Used for pan bread production in England

Types of Preferments CHAPTER • Sponge – Used for pan bread production in England – Popularly used in enriched dough – Improves flavor and strength of the dough • Biga – From Italy – Traditionally contains 50 -55% water, but it varies – Provides dough strength 4

Preferments CHAPTER • Advantages and Drawbacks of Preferment – Advantages • Gas Production •

Preferments CHAPTER • Advantages and Drawbacks of Preferment – Advantages • Gas Production • Alcohol Production • Acid Production 4

Fermentation: Preferments • Advantages and Drawbacks of Preferment – Drawbacks • Additional work required

Fermentation: Preferments • Advantages and Drawbacks of Preferment – Drawbacks • Additional work required • Extra space for storage (refrigerated/room temp) • Potential inability to plan exact amount of preferment CHAPTER 4

Preferments CHAPTER • Technical Considerations – Mixing Preferments • Stiff Preferment: Mix on first

Preferments CHAPTER • Technical Considerations – Mixing Preferments • Stiff Preferment: Mix on first speed for 5 – 8 minutes • Liquid Preferment: Mix with a paddle attachment 4

Fermentation: Preferments • Technical Considerations – Incorporation in the Final Dough • Timing and

Fermentation: Preferments • Technical Considerations – Incorporation in the Final Dough • Timing and Quantity • Secondary Effects of Preferment – Enzyme provokes sugar and protein degradation – Amylase and Protease CHAPTER 4

Fermentation CHAPTER • Sourdough – By accident, first created in Egypt between 40003000 BCE.

Fermentation CHAPTER • Sourdough – By accident, first created in Egypt between 40003000 BCE. • General Sourdough Process – Start a culture of microorganisms and increase the quantity to ferment the dough 4

Sourdough CHAPTER • Microorganisms Involved in the Sourdough Process 4 – Yeast and Bacteria

Sourdough CHAPTER • Microorganisms Involved in the Sourdough Process 4 – Yeast and Bacteria – Found in air, water, flour, etc – Yeast transforms simple sugars to alcohol and gas – Bacteria converts certain sugars into lactic and acetic acid

Sourdough CHAPTER • Starting a Culture 4 – A controlled culture of microorganisms requiring

Sourdough CHAPTER • Starting a Culture 4 – A controlled culture of microorganisms requiring food (flour), water and oxygen – Organic Flour and the addition of rye or whole wheat flour will increase micro organism activity

Fermentation: Sourdough • Culture Elaboration – Both aerobic and anaerobic activity of microorganisms (yeast

Fermentation: Sourdough • Culture Elaboration – Both aerobic and anaerobic activity of microorganisms (yeast and bacteria) – Stronger flora flourish and become established (natural selection) – Culture is “fed” at predetermined intervals to maintain activity of microorganisms CHAPTER 4

Fermentation: Sourdough • From Starter to Levain – Starter is elaborated until needed in

Fermentation: Sourdough • From Starter to Levain – Starter is elaborated until needed in formula – Levain is the preferment to be used to leaven final dough – If more activity is needed to achieve the mature levain, the quantity of starter may be increased in the levain feeding CHAPTER 4

Fermentation: Sourdough • Perpetuating the Culture – Option 1: remove a piece of the

Fermentation: Sourdough • Perpetuating the Culture – Option 1: remove a piece of the final dough before the addition of the salt – Option 2: increase levain quantity and remove required quantity of started to perpetuate – More consistent results occur when the starter is taken from the levain CHAPTER 4

Fermentation: Sourdough • Factors Affecting Culture Characteristics – Hydration: water content affects flora activity

Fermentation: Sourdough • Factors Affecting Culture Characteristics – Hydration: water content affects flora activity • Stiff culture will have tendency to develop more acetic acidity (more acidic flavor) • Liquid culture will increase the production of lactic acidity (less acidic flavor) CHAPTER 4

Fermentation: Sourdough CHAPTER • Factors Affecting Culture Characteristics – Temperature – 85°F (29°C) to

Fermentation: Sourdough CHAPTER • Factors Affecting Culture Characteristics – Temperature – 85°F (29°C) to 90 F (32°C) favors bacterial activity and the production of lactic acidity, but fermentation is more difficult to control – 77 F (25°C) optimizes fermentation activity, the development of the dough, and the production of aromas. 4

Fermentation: Sourdough CHAPTER • Factors Affecting Culture Characteristics – Flour • Enzyme and bran

Fermentation: Sourdough CHAPTER • Factors Affecting Culture Characteristics – Flour • Enzyme and bran content determine the amount of simple sugar and minerals available for the microorganisms • Higher extraction flours provide better activity and higher acid production 4

Fermentation: Sourdough • Factors Affecting Culture Characteristics – Salt • 0. 1 percent can

Fermentation: Sourdough • Factors Affecting Culture Characteristics – Salt • 0. 1 percent can be beneficial for a culture with high protease activity • More than 0. 1 percent can inhibit the activity of some microorganisms. CHAPTER 4

Fermentation: Sourdough CHAPTER • Maintaining the Culture – Consistency • Feedings should be regulated:

Fermentation: Sourdough CHAPTER • Maintaining the Culture – Consistency • Feedings should be regulated: ratio, type and temperature of ingredients. Mixing and storage. – Sanitation • Always use clean equipment and practice good hygiene. – Contamination • Prevent contamination from commercial yeast. 4

Fermentation: Sourdough • Troubleshooting Sourdough Culture – Too little Acidity/Too much Acidity – Lack

Fermentation: Sourdough • Troubleshooting Sourdough Culture – Too little Acidity/Too much Acidity – Lack of development in the bread – Lack of strength in the levain. CHAPTER 4

Fermentation: Sourdough • Use in Final Dough • Proportion of levain – Related to

Fermentation: Sourdough • Use in Final Dough • Proportion of levain – Related to dough and bread characteristics • Strength • Flavor (acidity level) • Use for different types of product – Possibility to develop different cultures with different characteristics • Whole Wheat, Rye • Sweet dough CHAPTER 4

Fermentation CHAPTER • Fermentation Process Conclusion 4 – Fermentation affects flavor, appearance and keeping

Fermentation CHAPTER • Fermentation Process Conclusion 4 – Fermentation affects flavor, appearance and keeping qualities of bread. – From poolish to sourdough, the baker has a lot to consider in terms of flavor, production schedule, and technical considerations. – The baker must learn to evaluate dough at all stages to have a solid understanding of the product and end subsequent end results.

Retarding Process CHAPTER • Retarding: – stopping the fermentation of the dough at various

Retarding Process CHAPTER • Retarding: – stopping the fermentation of the dough at various points in the process • Technical Considerations – Temperature – Gas Production – Gas Retention – Natural Dough Degradation 4

Retarding Process: Technical Considerations • Temperature CHAPTER 4 – Ferments in baking are sensitive

Retarding Process: Technical Considerations • Temperature CHAPTER 4 – Ferments in baking are sensitive to temperature. – Optimal temperature for fermentation is 74°-80°F. – At lower temperatures, ferments slow down their metabolism. – When the temperature reaches 40°F (4°C), ferments become dormant and most activity is stopped.

Retarding Process: Technical Considerations CHAPTER • Gas Production – Depends on temperature of retarding

Retarding Process: Technical Considerations CHAPTER • Gas Production – Depends on temperature of retarding process and quantity of yeast. – Freshness and quality of the yeast is important. – In a sourdough process, gas production will depend on the culture fermentation activity. • Liquid vs. Stiff cultures 4

Retarding Process: Technical Considerations • Gas Retention – The goal of the retarding process

Retarding Process: Technical Considerations • Gas Retention – The goal of the retarding process is to delay as long as possible the point where the gluten reaches maximum extensibility and breaks under the pressure of the gas. – A short first fermentation time is necessary to delay the point where the dough reaches its gas retention limit. – Flour with low starch damage slows fermentation activity. – To delay gas production at the beginning of the process, the DDT is 73°F (23°C). CHAPTER 4

Retarding Process: Technical Considerations CHAPTER • Natural Dough Degradation 4 – Occurs when flour

Retarding Process: Technical Considerations CHAPTER • Natural Dough Degradation 4 – Occurs when flour and water are put in contact and it continues as the fermentation progresses. – Most dough degradation happens because of protease. – To delay degradation start with dough that is strong enough to withstand retarding. – Some adaptations can be made during mixing. • Hydration can be slightly lower • Stiffer dough will provide a stronger gluten structure. • Mixing time must be calculated to sufficiently develop the dough and obtain a strong organized gluten structure.

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques CHAPTER • Delayed First Fermentation 4 – After mixing,

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques CHAPTER • Delayed First Fermentation 4 – After mixing, retard dough at 45°F (7°C) to 48°F (9°C). The retarding time can last from 12 to 18 hours. – After retarding, take the dough out of the retarder and divide it right away, or wait about 1 hour before scaling. – Divide and preshape as normal. A longer resting time will be necessary to allow the dough to warm up and restart fermentation. – Complete normal shaping and final proof and bake at the usual temperature and time

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques CHAPTER • Delayed First Fermentation: Advantages – At 45°F

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques CHAPTER • Delayed First Fermentation: Advantages – At 45°F (7°C) to 48°F (9°C) gas and acidity production is still happening at a lower rate but for a longer period of time. – When good quality flour is used, there is no need for dough conditioners such as ascorbic acid, keeping the product labeling cleaner. – Because the dough is retarded in bulk before shaping, no blisters are formed during baking. – The baker can organize production to offer customers fresh bread all day long without mixing too many batches of dough. 4

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques • Delayed First Fermentation: Drawbacks – This technique requires

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques • Delayed First Fermentation: Drawbacks – This technique requires a retarder with enough capacity to store a large amount of dough. – The bread cannot be baked immediately after retarding. Three to four hours are necessary to divide, shape, proof and bake the bread. CHAPTER 4

Retarding Process CHAPTER • Slow Final Proof – Mix to achieve between an improved

Retarding Process CHAPTER • Slow Final Proof – Mix to achieve between an improved mix and an intensive mix – The amount of fresh yeast: 0. 8 to 1 percent. – A longer fermentation time calls for a lower percentage of yeast. – Preferment is advised, and the DDT is 73°F (23°C). 4

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques CHAPTER • Slow Final Proof – Method – After

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques CHAPTER • Slow Final Proof – Method – After mixing, allow the dough to ferment 20 to 30 minutes and then divide, preshape and shape as normal – Place the shaped dough in the retarder set at 50°F (10°C). – Retard for 12 to 15 hours and bake directly from the retarder 4

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques • Slow Final Proof – Advantages – Dough can

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques • Slow Final Proof – Advantages – Dough can be baked after removing it from the retarder after 12 hours – Baked after 12 or 15 hours – Plan production to have fresh bread for breakfast and lunch without mixing too many batches of dough CHAPTER 4

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques • Slow Final Proof CHAPTER 4 – Drawbacks –

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques • Slow Final Proof CHAPTER 4 – Drawbacks – Retarding space is required. – 15 to 20 ppm ascorbic acid is necessary to reinforce the gluten structure of the dough. – The surface of the loaves can become dehydrated. For this reason, it is important to have a good humidifier system.

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques CHAPTER • Retarding-Proofing Process – – Method Mix to

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques CHAPTER • Retarding-Proofing Process – – Method Mix to achieve between an improved mix and an intensive mix Preferment is definitely advised. DDT is 73°F (23°C) After mixing, divide and preshape the dough; then allow it to ferment for 20 to 30 minutes. Let it rest for 20 minutes and shape more tightly than usual – Place the shaped pieces of dough in the retarder set at 38°F (3°C) to 40°F (4°C). Retard for 12 to 48 hours – Remove the dough from the retarder and leave it at room temperature for the final proof 4

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques • Retarding-Proofing Process – Advantages – Possible to bake

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques • Retarding-Proofing Process – Advantages – Possible to bake right away the next day – Allows better work organization – Better quality of life • Night hours more limited CHAPTER 4

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques • Retarding-Proofing Process – Drawbacks – Energy cost –

Retarding Process: Basic Retarding Techniques • Retarding-Proofing Process – Drawbacks – Energy cost – Flour issue • Dough conditioners may be necessary – Equipment considerations • Floor space • Proofer retarder needed • Good humidity regulation in proofer to avoid crusty dough CHAPTER 4

Retarding Process CHAPTER • Sourdough in the Retarding Process 4 – Sourdough is beneficial

Retarding Process CHAPTER • Sourdough in the Retarding Process 4 – Sourdough is beneficial to the retarding process – Higher levels of acidity reinforces the strength of the dough – Dough conditioners are not typically necessary – Rye and whole-wheat flours can easily be used in the retarding process

Retarding Process CHAPTER • Equipment – Retarders or proofer-retarders – Temperature, humidity production, and

Retarding Process CHAPTER • Equipment – Retarders or proofer-retarders – Temperature, humidity production, and air diffusion 4

Retarding Process CHAPTER • Retarding Conclusion – Fresh product all day long – Enables

Retarding Process CHAPTER • Retarding Conclusion – Fresh product all day long – Enables more diversified product line – Better work organization – Better quality of life 4

Dough Strength CHAPTER • Balance among three main physical dough characteristics • Extensibility –

Dough Strength CHAPTER • Balance among three main physical dough characteristics • Extensibility – Property of the dough to be stretched • Elasticity – Property of the dough to return to its initial position after being stretched • Tenacity – Property of the dough to resist to a stretching action 4

Dough Strength CHAPTER • Strong Dough Versus Weak Dough • Strong dough – Lack

Dough Strength CHAPTER • Strong Dough Versus Weak Dough • Strong dough – Lack of extensibility – Excess of tenacity – Very elastic • Weak dough – Excess of extensibility – Lack of tenacity – Lack of elasticity 4

Dough Strength CHAPTER • Factors Affecting Dough Strength – Ingredients – Mixing – Fermentation

Dough Strength CHAPTER • Factors Affecting Dough Strength – Ingredients – Mixing – Fermentation – Handling of the dough 4

Dough Strength CHAPTER • Ingredients • Flour characteristics – Protein quantity and quality –

Dough Strength CHAPTER • Ingredients • Flour characteristics – Protein quantity and quality – Ash content – Treatments – Maturation • Water – Dough hydration • Others ingredients – Fat, sugar, seeds 4

Dough Strength CHAPTER • Mixing • Use of an autolyse – Affect the gluten

Dough Strength CHAPTER • Mixing • Use of an autolyse – Affect the gluten of the dough • Mixing time – Dough development • Dough temperature – Affect fermentation activity 4

Dough Strength CHAPTER • Fermentation • Length of the first fermentation • Quantity of

Dough Strength CHAPTER • Fermentation • Length of the first fermentation • Quantity of dough – Mass effect • Use of preferment – Type – Quantity used in the final dough – Degree of maturation 4

Dough Strength CHAPTER • Dough Handling • Dividing and scaling – By hand or

Dough Strength CHAPTER • Dough Handling • Dividing and scaling – By hand or by machine • Preshaping • Shaping – Tightness • Scoring – Different scoring patterns 4

Conclusion CHAPTER • Fermentation is a critical step in baking 4 • The quality

Conclusion CHAPTER • Fermentation is a critical step in baking 4 • The quality of bread is a result of the type of fermentation • Choices: straight dough, preferments, retarding processes