Chapter 32: The Building of Global Empires What is Imperialism? The domination of European powers (and US and Japan) over subject lands in the larger world by various methods
es o d W HO n? e p p a h this “Men make their own history but they do not make it as they please nor under conditions of their choosing. ” “Whatever happens we have got The Maxim gun and they have not. ” - Hilaire Belloc - Karl Marx “We are the finest race in the world and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for the human race. ” - Cecil Rhodes 1877
Old Imperialism VS New Imperialism? Then: Americas (economic/political often indirect) Now: Africa, East Asia, South Asia, SE Asia (economic/political/ military/racist: often direct)
1. In defending England's right to colonize Africa, Lord Frederick Lugard proposed, "I hold that our right is the necessity that is upon us to provide for our ever-growing population. " Is there an economic justification for imperialism? Be sure to consider the question from the position of both the colonizing nation and the colony. 2. When Rudyard Kipling suggested that Americans "Take up the White Man's Burden" what did he mean? How does this phrase express the goals of imperialism? Did the Americans have to be encouraged to become imperialistic? 3. Examine the racist beliefs that played such a central role in European imperialism. How did racism justify imperialism and also inspire it?
What are the motivations for imperialism? Think: GRAPES
Political and Economic Motivations? P = strategic positioning, nationalism, distraction from civil problems, seize territory, subdue potential enemies, personal legacy, confirm military strength E= raw materials for industrialization, secure wealth (gold, diamonds), colonies as markets, ease economic burden of growing population, secure trading ports
“Learning Civilized Ways is Hard Work” Social Motivations = The White Man’s Burden S = spiritual campaigns to “civilize” subject lands, “White Man’s Burden” was the duty of European and American people to bring “order and enlightenment” to non-Christian natives “Social Darwinism”: Herbert Spencer encouraged emigration to subject lands Dr. David Livingstone
Social Motivations = The White Man’s Burden
European nations (and later US) used nationalism and industrialization to motivate popular support at home for imperialism The Sun Never Sets…. Where does GB go and why? Effects? Concessionary Rule? Indirect or Direct Rule? Problems or Benefits of each?
The British Empire in India Mughal decline (1707) provided opportunity for British expansion: created new economic systems that fostered dependency on the British After Sepoy Mutiny: DIRECT Rule by the British Primarily ECONOMIC and POLITICAL: Left Cultural Traditions intact (Hindu religion, did outlaw sati) (DID not try to impose Christainity)
Imperialism Examples…… The Opium Wars, 1839 -1842
• Became a protectorate of Great Britain from 1883 until 1956 • British domination of Egypt became the model for the "new imperialism“ • Turkish general Muhammad Ali had established Egypt into a strong and virtually independent state by 1849 • Egypt's inability to satisfy foreign investors led to control of its finances by France & Britain • Safeguarding the Suez Canal (completed in 1869) played a key role in the British occupation of Egypt and its bloody conquest of the Sudan. • (Battle of Omdurman 1898: 11, 000 Sudanese dead, 368 British dead) The British in Egypt
The French and British gain control of the Suez Canal 1876 British remained in Egypt until 1954 Where else does FRANCE go and WHY? Effects?
Imperialism in Asia ca. 1914
Where does Japan go and why? Effects?
Where does Russia go and why? Effects? The Great Game: Russia and Great Britain Seek Central Asian alliance in future war over India
The Americas: Where does the United States go to and WHY? Effects? Monroe Doctrine 1803 Spanish American War 1898 -1899 “A Splendid Little War” Why does America need to wait until the late 19 th century to launch its imperialistic quest? ? United States and the Caribbean
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine 1904 Panama Canal 1903 -1914
“Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick… You Will Go Far”
Queen Liliuokalani (r. 1891 -1893) Sanford B. Dole United States and Hawaii: annexation ceremony 1898 (statehood 1959)
The Scramble for Africa Cecil Rhodes South Africa 1871 King Leopold of Belgium (Congo Free State 1870 s)
“The baskets of severed hands, set down at the feet of the European post commanders, became the symbol of the Congo Free State. . The collection of hands became an end in itself. Force Publique soldiers brought them to the stations in place of rubber; they even went out to harvest them instead of rubber. . . They became a sort of currency. They came to be used to make up for shortfalls in rubber quotas, to replace. . . the people who were demanded for the forced labor gangs; and the Force Publique soldiers were paid their bonuses on the basis of how many hands they collected. ” - Belgian Commissioner (Death toll estimates 3 -15 million Africans) African men were murdered, women were raped and murdered, if they did not fill their quota of rubber and ivory
The Berlin Conference 1884 -1885 • • • Coordinated by German (von Bismarck), called for by Portugal 14 European nations and the United States were involved: no Africans were invited Generally agreed to represent the formalization of the Scramble for Africa Organized in response to Stanley’s mapping of the Congo Basin and to King Leopold’s assertion that the Congo region would be a trade free zone. The General Act of the Berlin Conference proclaimed: 1. The Free State of Congo was confirmed as private property of the Congo Society and essentially the private property of King Leopold. (because of the terror regime established, it would eventually become a Belgian colony 1908). 2. The 14 signatory powers would have free trade throughout the Congo Basin and the Niger and Congo Rivers were made free for ship traffic. 3. An international prohibition of the slave trade was signed. 4. Any European country could establish colonies as long as they told everyone, and occupied previously unoccupied territories.
The Boer. War 1899 -1902 Great Britain abolishes slavery in 1833 The Great Trek Diamonds 1867 Gold 1886 White privileged society Vs. black Africans
As late as 1925 one British official commented on the process as it operated in central Nigeria: “I shall of course go on walloping them until they surrender. It’s a rather piteous sight watching a village being knocked to pieces and I wish there was some other way, but unfortunately there isn’t. ”
Legacies of Imperialism? Population migration Increased global trade Increased global conflict Increased sense of difference from one culture to another Increased racism among Europeans, Americans and Japanese Stimulated anti-colonialism and nationalism in subject lands From the 20 th C onward: much of global history has revolved around the new world order created by imperialism and colonialism Case Study: India
Roy inspired reform societies (educated Hindu elite) that emphasized self-government, or at least greater Indian participation in government (followed ideals of Enlightenment) • a Hindu Reformer “Father of Modern India” • supported some British colonial policies (end to sati) Indian National Congress 1885 (founded with British approval) Openly sought Indian self-rule Joined with All-India Muslim League 1909 Independence granted in 1947 (GANDHI)