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Chapter 3 The Constitution
Chapter 3 Section 1 Structure and Principles
Structure � The Preamble sets forth the goals of the government. ◦ “To form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty. ”
Structure � The seven articles are the main divisions in the body of the Constitution, each article covering a general topic. � The amendments, which provide for changes in the original document, are third part of the Constitution.
The Seven Articles � Articles I, II, and III ◦ Create three branches of government. � Article IV � Article V ◦ Explains the relationship of the states to one another and to the national government. ◦ Explains the ways the constitution can be amended.
The Seven Articles � Article VII ◦ Contains the Supremacy Clause, which states that the constitution and laws and treaties passed by congress “shall be the supreme Law of the Land. ” ◦ Addresses ratification and declares that the constitution would take effect after it was ratified by nine states.
Major Principles � Popular sovereignty is the cornerstone of the Constitution. ◦ Popular sovereignty: rule by the people � Federalism structure. is the government’s basic ◦ Federalism: a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Major Principles � The Constitution provides for separation of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. � Checks and balances guarantees that no branch of government will become too powerful. ◦ Checks and balances: the system where each branch of government exercise some control over the others
Major Principles � Judicial review ensures that laws made by congress and the states do not violate individual rights. ◦ Judicial review: the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional � Limited government outlines the right for people to govern themselves. ◦ Limited government: a system in which the power of the government is limited, not absolute
Chapter 3 Section 2 Three Branches of Government
The Legislative Branch � The powers, called enumerated powers, granted to Congress are expressed in Article I, Section 8. ◦ Enumerated powers: the expressed powers of Congress that are itemized and numbered 1 -18 in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution ◦ The final enumerated power is known as the elastic clause which gives Congress the right to make all laws “necessary and proper” to carry out the other powers expressed in the other clauses of Article I.
The Legislative Branch � Congress handles a far greater number of bills today than Congress did early in the nation’s history. ◦ In the first Congress, the Senate introduced only 24 bills and the House introduced 143. ◦ Today a total of about 10, 000 bills are introduced yearly.
The Legislative Branch � Attendance in legislative sessions was only a part-time job for many years. ◦ Congress did not sit in continuous session until the mid 1900 s ◦ Today members of Congress live and work nearly year round in Washington, D. C.
The Executive Branch � The founders granted the executive broad but vaguely described powers. ◦ Not put in office by direct election- voted on by Electoral College ◦ “The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. ” � The presidency has changed over the years. ◦ Modern presidents handle many duties and their schedules are timed minute by minute.
The Executive Branch � Article II, Sections 2 and 3 describe the specific powers of the president. ◦ Commander in Chief of armed forces ◦ Appoints heads of executive departments with Senate approval ◦ May pardon people convicted of federal crimes ◦ Makes treaties with the advice and consent of Senate ◦ Appoints ambassadors, federal judges, and other officials with Senate consent
The Executive Branch � Article II, Sections 2 and 3 describe the specific powers of the president. ◦ Delivers an annual State of the Union message to Congress ◦ Calls Congress into special sessions when necessary ◦ Meets with heads of state, ambassadors, and other foreign officials ◦ Commissions all military officers of the United States ◦ Ensures that the laws Congress passes are “faithfully executed. ”
The Judicial Branch � The United States has two levels of courts, federal and state. ◦ Federal courts powers derive from the Constitution and federal laws. ◦ State courts are the judicial courts of each state and their powers derive from state constitutions and laws.
The Judicial Branch � Two factors determine jurisdiction, or the authority of courts to rule on certain cases. ◦ Subject matter of the case. ◦ Parties involved. � The modern federal system dates from 1891.
The Judicial Branch � The Supreme Court exercised important power beginning in 1803 by using judicial review. ◦ Marbury v. Madison ◦ Chief Justice John Marshall announced that the Judiciary Act of 1789 gave the court more power than the Constitution allowed. ◦ This made the act unconstitutional and crated judicial review which elevated the importance of the Supreme Court as they now decided what laws were and were not constitutional.
Shared Power and Conflict � The executive and legislative branches must cooperate to produce effective policies but some conflicts are inevitable. � The expansion of presidential power has caused conflicts between the executive and legislative branches.
Shared Power and Conflict � Congress has the power to limit judicial authority but has been reluctant to use it. � The Supreme Court must depend on the president and the executive branch to carry out its decisions.
Chapter 3 Section 3 Amending the Constitution
The Amendment Process � Article V describes how Congress and the States can change the Constitution. � There are two methods for amending the Constitution. ◦ Two-thirds vote of each house of Congress. �Dozens of resolutions asking for constitutional amendments are introduced in Congress each year. ◦ A national convention called by Congress at the request of two-thirds of the states. �This method has never been used. � Congress decides how much time the states will have to ratify a proposed amendment.
Informal Changes - Changes Through Laws ◦ Congress has passed laws that have changed or clarified many provisions of the Constitution. ◦ Congress has greatly expanded the executive branch by creating the cabinet departments, agencies, boards, and commissions. ◦ Congress has changed the Judicial branch by creating the additional federal courts, establishing new rules of federal court procedure, and provided for court workers.
Informal Changes � Changes Through Practices ◦ Congress has shaped the Constitution by using the powers granted to the Legislative branch. ◦ The House my impeach federal officials, including the president, while it is up to the Senate to determine the accused person’s guilt or innocence. �Impeach: to accuse a public official of misconduct in office
Informal Presidential Changes � Presidential Succession ◦ After the death of President William Henry Harrison there was a question about whether the vice president actually became president or merely took the role of acting president until the next election. ◦ Vice president John Tyler took the oath of office and established the precedent of presidential succession.
Informal Presidential Changes � Foreign Affairs ◦ In dealing with other nations, presidents use executive agreements that do not require the approval of Congress. �Executive agreement: an agreement made between the president and a head of state � Domestic Affairs ◦ Modern presidents have greatly strengthened the powers of their office by proposing their own legislative agendas to Congress. �Leads to more presidential powers than founding fathers originally imagined.
Court Decisions � The Supreme Court uses judicial review to interpret the Constitution. ◦ The philosophy of judicial restraint holds that the Court should uphold acts of Congress unless the acts clearly violate a specific provisions of the Constitution. �Judicial restraint: the philosophy that the Supreme Court should avoid taking the initiative on social and political questions.
Court Decisions � The Supreme Court uses judicial review to interpret the Constitution. ◦ Judicial activism holds that the Court should apply the Constitution to social and political questions. �Judicial activism: the philosophy that the Supreme Court should play an active role in shaping the national policies by addressing social and political issues � The Supreme Court’s rulings can change to reflect the changing condition of the time. ◦ Chief Justice John Warren accepted cases involving many controversial issues, including civil rights.
Changes Through Custom and Usage � The Constitution has been informally enlarged through customs that have developed over time. � Political parties are an example of customs that have informally changed the Constitution.
Changes Through Custom and Usage � Political parties are not mentioned in the Constitution, but play a vital role in today’s government. � The amendments added to the Constitution and the changes achieved through precedent and practice have crated a government that can respond to the conditions and needs of the times.
Chapter 3 Section 4 The Amendments
The Bill of Rights � Critics attacked the proposed Constitution for not protecting the rights of the people. � Federalists � The promised to add a list of rights. first Congress proposed 12 amendments and sent them to the states for ratification.
The Bill of Rights � In 1791 the states ratified 10 of the amendments which became the Bill of Rights. � These ten amendments originally applied only to the federal government, but through a series of Supreme Court decisions now apply to state governments also.
The Bill of Rights � The First Amendment ◦ Protects individuals’ rights to worship, to speak freely, to assemble, and to petition and criticize government. ◦ Unlike the press in some other countries, the American press is not subject to prior restraint. �Prior restraint: government censorship of information before it is published or broadcast ◦ The freedoms of speech and the press are not unlimited. �Slander and libel are prohibited under law.
The Bill of Rights � The Second Amendment � The Third Amendment ◦ Ensures citizens’ right to own firearms. ◦ Prohibits the government from forcing people to provide shelter for soldiers in their homes. ◦ Intended to prevent the American government from repeating the actions of the British government during the colonial period and the Revolution.
The Bill of Rights � The Fourth Amendment ◦ Protects individuals from unlawful searches and arrests without court warrants. ◦ To be lawful, a search or arrest must be based on probable cause. �Probably cause: a reasonable basis to believe a person or premises is linked to a crime ◦ A search or an arrest also usually requires a search warrant or an arrest warrant. �Search warrant: an order signed by a judge describing a specific place to ne searched for specific items �Arrest warrant: an order signed by a judge naming the individual to be arrested for a specific crime
The Bill of Rights � The Fifth Amendment Protects people charged with a crime. A grand jury must indict them before trial. No one found innocent can be retried for the same crime People cannot be forced to testify against themselves. No one can be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. ◦ Defines the governments rights of eminent domain. �Eminent domain: the power of government to take private ◦ ◦ ◦ property for public use �The government must pay a fair price for the land that they purchase.
The Bill of Rights � The Sixth Amendment � The Seventh Amendment ◦ Guarantees accused persons the right to know the charges against them, a defense attorney, a speedy jury trial, and the right to question all witnesses and compel them to testify. ◦ Provides individuals the right to a trial by jury to settle property disputes, though a judge my try the case if both parties agree.
The Bill of Rights � The Eighth Amendment � The Ninth Amendment � The Tenth Amendment ◦ Prohibits excessive bail and fines and bars cruel and unusual punishment. ◦ Has been used to limit the use of the death penalty in some cases. ◦ States that all powers not spelled out in the Constitution are retained by the people. ◦ All powers not given to the national government or denied to the states belong to the states or the people.
Other Amendments � The 11 th Amendment prohibits a state from being sued in federal court. � The 12 th Amendment states that the Electoral College shall cast separate ballots for president and vice president. � The 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th Amendments are known as the Civil War Amendments. � The 13 th Amendment outlaws slavery.
Other Amendments � The 14 th Amendment originally was intended to protect the legal rights of the freed slaves and their decedents. ◦ Today, it protects the rights of citizenship in general by prohibiting a state from depriving any person of life, liberty, or property without “due process of law. ”
Other Amendments � 15 th Amendment outlawed slavery, prohibited depriving anyone of life, liberty, or property without “due process, ” and prohibited denying the right to vote based on race.
Later Amendments � The later Amendments, 16 -27, deal with a variety of topics reflecting changes in modern times. � Highlights of later amendments: ◦ 17 th Amendment states that the people instead of the legislature elect US senators. ◦ 18 th Amendment prohibits the manufacture, sale, or transport of alcoholic beverages. ◦ 19 th Amendment guaranteed women the right to vote. ◦ 21 st Amendment repeals the 18 th Amendment. ◦ 22 nd Amendment limits the president to a maximum of two terms in office. ◦ 26 th Amendment lowers the voting age to 18.