Chapter 3 Spatial Interaction Spatial Behavior Spatial interaction

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Chapter 3 Spatial Interaction & Spatial Behavior

Chapter 3 Spatial Interaction & Spatial Behavior

Spatial interaction & behavior • common characteristics of spatial behavior that affect and unify

Spatial interaction & behavior • common characteristics of spatial behavior that affect and unify all people and social systems • “ground rules” of spatial interaction • physical and behavioral constraints

Spatial interaction • the movement of peoples, ideas, and commodities within and between areas

Spatial interaction • the movement of peoples, ideas, and commodities within and between areas

Commodity flows • points of supply to locals of demand • factors in the

Commodity flows • points of supply to locals of demand • factors in the structure of trade: • 1. awareness of supplies or markets • 2. presence or absence of transportation connections • 3. costs of movements • 4. ability to pay for things wanted & needed

3 Controlling principles Edward Ullman ((1912 -1976) • 1. Complementarity – for two places

3 Controlling principles Edward Ullman ((1912 -1976) • 1. Complementarity – for two places to interact one must have a supply of an item for which there is an effective demand in the other • by desire to purchase • purchasing power • means to transport it – Or exchange – developing countries

International crude oil & complementarity

International crude oil & complementarity

Controlling principles • 2. Transferability – Spatial interaction can only occur when there acceptable

Controlling principles • 2. Transferability – Spatial interaction can only occur when there acceptable costs of an exchange: time & cost • Characteristics & value of product • Distance measured in time & $$$ penalties • Commodity must be able to bear the costs of movement – Dynamic – relationships can & do change

Controlling principles • 3. Intervening opportunity – Serves to reduce supply/demand interactions that otherwise

Controlling principles • 3. Intervening opportunity – Serves to reduce supply/demand interactions that otherwise might develop between distant complementary areas – Dynamic – reflecting changeable structure of apparent opportunity

Intervening opportunity

Intervening opportunity

Measuring interaction • General principles/patterns – Friction of distance • Distance has retarding effect/

Measuring interaction • General principles/patterns – Friction of distance • Distance has retarding effect/ time & cost penalties – Distance decay • Near destinations have disproportionate pull over more distant locations • Varies with activity – Linear distance • Only one aspect of transferability –`

Shape of distance decay

Shape of distance decay

Gravity Model (Henry Carey 1793 -1879) • Observations based on Newton’s law of universal

Gravity Model (Henry Carey 1793 -1879) • Observations based on Newton’s law of universal gravitation: – 1. Interaction between urban centers can be calculated by size & distance – 2. Large cities have greater drawing power for individuals than do small ones

leading to Reilly’s law • Breaking Point: – Two cities will attract trade from

leading to Reilly’s law • Breaking Point: – Two cities will attract trade from intermediate locales in direct proportion to their size and distance

Human spatial behavior • Mobility describes all types of human territorial movement • 2

Human spatial behavior • Mobility describes all types of human territorial movement • 2 types: – 1. Circulation • a) daily or temporal • b) longer periods, such as vacations – 2. Migration • Permanent move, relocation

Circulation

Circulation

Individual areas of activity • 1. Territoriality – Emotional attachment to, and the defense

Individual areas of activity • 1. Territoriality – Emotional attachment to, and the defense of home ground • 2. Personal space – The zone of privacy/separation from other our culture or our physical circumstances require or permit

Activity space • Extended home range • Variables: – Stage of life – Mobility

Activity space • Extended home range • Variables: – Stage of life – Mobility – Opportunities

Space & time • Daily activities consume time & space Space-Time Prism Space-Time Path

Space & time • Daily activities consume time & space Space-Time Prism Space-Time Path

Critical distance • Short trips are more frequent • Distance decay

Critical distance • Short trips are more frequent • Distance decay

Information age • Time & space are different for information flows due to modern

Information age • Time & space are different for information flows due to modern telecommunications • Time & space convergence = the obliteration of space • Changing constraints, determinations on human activities, lifestyles

Migration – permanent relocation • Unmistakable, recurring, nearuniversal theme • Complementarity, transferability, intervening opportunity,

Migration – permanent relocation • Unmistakable, recurring, nearuniversal theme • Complementarity, transferability, intervening opportunity, barriers, all play a role • Often occurs in a series of steps, or chain, like links

Decision factors • Cultural, socio/economic • Distance • Responses to poverty, population growth, environmental

Decision factors • Cultural, socio/economic • Distance • Responses to poverty, population growth, environmental deterioration, war, famine • Micro – macro moves

Distance of migration • Intercontinental • 16 th to 17 th centuries, very little

Distance of migration • Intercontinental • 16 th to 17 th centuries, very little • 19 th to 20 th, huge movements • Involve movements between countries or counties • Intracontinental • International • Interregional

Rural to urban migration • Due to Industrial Revolution • 18 th to 19

Rural to urban migration • Due to Industrial Revolution • 18 th to 19 th centuries in U. S. & Europe • 20 th centuries, worldwide phonomenon • Today more prevalent than international moves • More difficult to move internationally

Types of migration • 1. Forced migration – Historic & recent, 10 -12 million

Types of migration • 1. Forced migration – Historic & recent, 10 -12 million West Africans • Caribbean, Central, South, & North America – British convicts to Australia, after 1780

Forced migration

Forced migration

Types of migration • 2. Reluctant relocation – 1969, 8 million Indonesians moved by

Types of migration • 2. Reluctant relocation – 1969, 8 million Indonesians moved by government to less densely populated islands – 2000, 14 million international war refugees • Both internal or external movements

Types of migration • 3. Voluntary migration - largest – Push of: • Poverty,

Types of migration • 3. Voluntary migration - largest – Push of: • Poverty, overcrowding, war, famine, environmental degradation, loss of job – Pull of: • Perceived economic opportunity, safety, food, better climate, cleaner/safer environment, family

Voluntary migration

Voluntary migration

Additional effects • 1. “Brain drain” • 2. Guest workers • 3. Time -

Additional effects • 1. “Brain drain” • 2. Guest workers • 3. Time - contract

Counter migration • Always occurs – some migrants return to place of origin •

Counter migration • Always occurs – some migrants return to place of origin • U. S. , from 1900 – 1980, out of 80 million migrants, 10 million returned to their motherland

Voluntary migration observations E. G. Ravenstein (1834 -1913) • 1. Most migrants go only

Voluntary migration observations E. G. Ravenstein (1834 -1913) • 1. Most migrants go only a short distance • 2. Longer distance migration favors large cities • 3. Most migration proceeds step by step

 • 4. Most migration is rural to urban • 5. Each migration flow

• 4. Most migration is rural to urban • 5. Each migration flow produces a counter-flow • 6. Most migrants are adults; family moves are less likely to be international • 7. Most international migrants are young males

Migration patterns

Migration patterns

Characteristics today • Most migrants are young males, not a cross section of ages

Characteristics today • Most migrants are young males, not a cross section of ages – U. S. – peaks in late 20’s – West Africa – ages 15 to 39 • New trend: young females increasingly migrate – Domestic service jobs – “Entertainment” industry

Find your deep migration history • http: //www. dnaancestryproject. co m/

Find your deep migration history • http: //www. dnaancestryproject. co m/