- Slides: 15
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Components of a research methodology 3. 1 Introduction 3. 2 Research instruments 3. 3 Respondents 3. 4 Research procedure 3. 5 Data analysis
Data Collection (the process) �Process of collecting data from different sources. Divided into two: Ø Primary data: Questionnaire, interview, observation, tests or experiment Ø Secondary data: previous readings already written
Sampling �Sample: group of individuals involved as respondents who provide information, facts or opinions that can be applied or generalized to the general population. �Random vs Non-random sampling
Problem to be investigated Obesity among higher learners in Malaysia Target population All university students Specific population Second year students of various universities in Malaysia Sample 10% of second year students Target population Specific population Sample
Instrumentation: Primary Data Questionnaire � Tips on preparing: v Write the purpose on the first page v Provide clear instructions v Ask only relevant questions v Avoid leading questions v Avoid asking two things in one question v End with courtesy (thank you) � Two categories of questions: Open ended and closed- ended � After preparing your questionnaire, don’t forget to pilot it!
Interview �Conversation carried out with the purpose of obtaining specific information �Two-way communication between interviewer and respondent �Begin the interview by briefing about the purpose of your study general questions specific questions �End with courtesy (thank you)
Observation �A method of collecting data by observing the activity first hand. �Prepare an observation guide sheet to jot down what you want to observe and the duration �Take note of everything within the observation period
Observation no. Date: Time: Location: Duration: Male Female Morning Afternoon Evening Figure 3. 2 Students’ Focus in Class
Writing chapter 3 � 3. 1 Introduction �Must include: 1. Purpose or objective of the research 2. Short description of the issue to be studied 3. Location of data collection 4. Population and sample respondents 5. Data collection methods
�E. g: This section discusses the methodology of the research. The main purpose of the research is to investigate the need to own a cell phone among the first and second year students of Permata University. To assess and evaluate the need to own a cell phone among tertiary level students, a branch campus of Permata University situated in the Kinta Valley area with 9000 students’ population was chosen. Data for the research were collected through questionnaire, interview and observation.
3. 2 research instrument �Explain in detail your instrument This research utilized both the quantitative and qualitative research methodology. The instruments used to collect the date were questionnaire, interview and observation. A set of questionnaire containing 10 questions were given……
3. 3 respondents of the study �Explain in detail who are your respondents
3. 4 research procedure �Explain about the pilot study here �How do you distribute the questionnaire
3. 5 data analysis �What kind of software do you use (excel, SPS) �How do you make sure the data you collected is valid