- Slides: 13
Chapter 3: Police Organizations and Operation
Police Agencies as Organizations � With over a million people being employed by local, state, and Federal governments and costing American citizens in excess of 5. 25 billion per year is very easy to see that policing is very labor intensive and a costly undertaking. � Hence anything that law enforcement can do in or to organize itself more efficiently and effectively can have a profound impact on both the citizens that they serve as well as the organizations themselves.
The Grouping of Activities An organization is an artificial structure created to coordinate either people or groups and resources to achieve the mission of goal(Peak, p. 58). By developing mission statements, policies and procedures, and management style police administrators attempt to ensure the organization meets its overall goals of investigating and suppressing crime and that the organization works well with similar organizations.
The Division of Labor Advantages of Specialization: ◦ Placement of responsibility- the responsibility for performing given pass can be placed within specific units are individuals. ◦ Development of expertise- those who have specialized responsibilities receive specialized training. ◦ Group esprit de corps- groups the specially trained persons share camaraderie and depend on one another for success leading to cohesion and high morale. ◦ Increased efficiency and effectiveness- specialized units have a high degree of proficiency and performing job tasks.
Elements of Police Organizational Structure Seven elements of law enforcement organizational structure ◦ Functional differentiation ◦ Occupational differentiation ◦ Spatial differentiation ◦ Vertical differentiation ◦ Centralization ◦ Formalization ◦ Administrative intensity
The Basic Organizational Structure Organizational structures do vary from one jurisdiction to another and may be considered fluid in nature. The traditional organization is structured along the lines of the military regarding rank structure. Patrol is considered the primary line element because it is the major law enforcement responsibility within police organizations. Investigative in youth activities may be considered secondary line elements. Staff services include such responsibilities as recruitment, training, promotion, community relations, etc. Ancillary services include jail management, property and evidence handling, crime lab services, communications, etc.
Quasi Military Style of Policing Law enforcement has typically been structured around a military model. Those who support this militarist structure saying that it provides control in commanding authority with strict discipline, respect for the chain of command, and rigid rank differences. Critics note however that it can make law enforcement excessively ridged, autocratic, secretive, intellectually and creatively constrained, and highly resistant to any initiative that would allow employee participation in the decisionmaking process.
Policies, Rules, and Regulations Policies are more general than procedures, rules, or regulations. They guide the organizations philosophy and mission. These should be committed to writing and modified as needed with changing times and circumstances. Procedures are more specific than policies, and serve as guide to action. It is more specific than a policy but less restrictive than a rule or regulation. It describes a method of operation, but allows for some flexibility with limits set. Rules and regulations- are very specific that leave little or no latitude for individual discretion.
What is Community Oriented Policing? Community Oriented Policing and problem solving is a philosophy, management style, and organizational strategy that promotes proactive problem solving and policecommunity partnerships to address the causes of crime and fear as well as other community issues (Peak, p. 65).
SARA Method for Problem Solving Scanning involves identifying the problem to determine if one really exists and decide whether further analysis is warranted. Analysis is where the officer studies the information gathered in the first stage of the process more intensely. This is to determine the seriousness of the problem as well as try and identify the underlying causes. Response is the step, in which law enforcement plans the best long term solution for solving or handling the community problem. Assessment is the stage in which the response is evaluated by the officer to see what the results of their efforts have been. If not, then they take what has been done and add or subtract from the response to try and make another go of it in many cases.
Viewing Crime Prevention by Two Additional Means Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design- is defined as the proper design and effective use of the environment they can lead to a reduction in the fear and incidence of crime and an improvement in the quality of life. It is based upon three principles that support problem-solving approaches to crime: ◦ Natural access control ◦ Natural Surveillance ◦ Territorial reinforcement
Situational Crime Prevention Five primary objectives : ◦ ◦ ◦ Increasing the effort needed to commit the crime Increasing the risks associated with the crime Reducing the rewards Reducing the provocations Reducing the excuses
Moving From a Good to a Great Police Organization � Collins pointed out in the book that he wrote title “Good to Great in the Social Sectors” that the success of great police organizations had to do with their leadership. � Level five leaders are ambitious, but their ambition is directed first and foremost to the organization and a success. � Level five leaders are fanatically driven, and infected with an incurable need to produce results. � These individuals do not exhibit enormous egos but instead were quiet, reserved, and even shy.