CHAPTER 3 Job Analysis Introduction to IndustrialOrganizational Psychology

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CHAPTER 3 Job Analysis Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology by Ronald Riggio

CHAPTER 3 Job Analysis Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology by Ronald Riggio

Personnel Psychology ¢ ¢ Personnel psychology, a specialty area of I/O psychology, is concerned

Personnel Psychology ¢ ¢ Personnel psychology, a specialty area of I/O psychology, is concerned with the creation, care, and maintenance of a workforce. I/O psychologists who specialize in personnel psychology are involved in: l l Employee recruitment and selection. Measurement of employee performance and establishment of good performance review procedures. Development of employee training programs. Formulation of criteria for promotion, firing, and disciplinary action.

Job Analysis ¢ Job analysis is the systematic study of: a job's tasks, duties,

Job Analysis ¢ Job analysis is the systematic study of: a job's tasks, duties, and responsibilities, and the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the job. ¢ Job analysis is the starting point for many important personnel functions. ¢ A job analysis yields several products such as a job description and job specification.

Job Analysis Products Job description Job specification Job evaluation Performance criteria

Job Analysis Products Job description Job specification Job evaluation Performance criteria

Job Analysis Products 1. 2. Job description l A detailed accounting of job tasks,

Job Analysis Products 1. 2. Job description l A detailed accounting of job tasks, procedures, responsibilities, and output. Job specification l Information about the physical, educational, and experiential qualities required to perform the job.

Example of Job Description & Job specification Job: Receptionist OLEC CORP. Job Description :

Example of Job Description & Job specification Job: Receptionist OLEC CORP. Job Description : Job Title: Receptionist Department: Operations Reports To: Director of Operations Prepared By: Richard Jones Prepared Date: May 23, 2005 Approved By: Michael Smith Approved Date: May 29, 2005 SUMMARY Receives callers at establishment, determines nature of business, and directs callers to destination by performing the following duties. ESSENTIAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES include the following. Other duties may be assigned. • • • Obtains caller's name and arranges for appointment with person called upon. Directs caller to destination and records name, time of call, nature of business, and person called upon. Operates PBX telephone console to receive incoming messages. Types memos, correspondence, reports, and other documents. Issues visitor's pass when required. Makes future appointments and answer inquiries. Collects and distributes mail and messages. Performs variety of clerical duties. SUPERVISORY RESPONSIBILITIES This job has no supervisory responsibilities.

Example of Job Description & Job specification Job: Receptionist OLEC CORP. Job specification :

Example of Job Description & Job specification Job: Receptionist OLEC CORP. Job specification : QUALIFICATIONS To perform this job successfully, an individual must be able to perform each essential duty satisfactorily. The requirements listed below are representative of the knowledge, skill, and/or ability required. Reasonable accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions. • EDUCATION and/or EXPERIENCE: One year certificate from college or technical school; or three to six months related experience and/or training; or equivalent combination of education and experience. • LANGUAGE SKILLS: Ability to read and interpret documents such as safety rules, operating and maintenance instructions, and procedure manuals. Ability to write routine reports and correspondence. Ability to speak effectively before groups of customers or employees of organization. • MATHEMATICAL SKILLS: Ability to add, subtract, multiply, and divide in all units of measure, using whole numbers, common fractions, and decimals. Ability to compute rate, ratio, and percent and to draw and interpret bar graphs. • REASONING ABILITY: Ability to apply common sense understanding to carry out instructions furnished in written, oral, or diagram form. Ability to deal with problems involving several concrete variables in standardized situations. • PHYSICAL DEMANDS: The physical demands described here are representative of those that must be met by an employee to successfully perform the essential functions of this job. Reasonable accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions. While performing the duties of this job, the employee is regularly required to sit and talk or hear. The employee frequently is required to use hands to finger, handle, or feel and reach with hands and arms. The employee is occasionally required to stand walk. The employee must occasionally lift and/or move up to 10 pounds.

Job Analysis Products 3. l 4. l Job evaluation An assessment of the relative

Job Analysis Products 3. l 4. l Job evaluation An assessment of the relative value of jobs for determining compensation. Performance criteria Work and performance outcomes required by the job that serve as a basis for appraising successful job performance.

Job Analysis Methods ¢ Job analysis methods include observation, the use of existing data,

Job Analysis Methods ¢ Job analysis methods include observation, the use of existing data, interviews, surveys, and job diaries. ¢ Each method has strengths and weaknesses. ¢ In addition to these general methods for conducting job analysis, there also a number of specific, standardized techniques.

Specific Job Analysis Techniques Job Elements Method Functional job analysis (FJA) The Position Analysis

Specific Job Analysis Techniques Job Elements Method Functional job analysis (FJA) The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) Critical incidents technique (CIT)

Specific Job Analysis Techniques ¢ Job Elements Method l A broad approach to job

Specific Job Analysis Techniques ¢ Job Elements Method l A broad approach to job analysis that focuses on the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) required to perform a particular job. l Relies on subject matter experts (SMEs)

Specific Job Analysis Techniques ¢ Functional job analysis (FJA) is a method that has

Specific Job Analysis Techniques ¢ Functional job analysis (FJA) is a method that has been used to classify jobs in terms of workers’ interaction with data, people, and things. l Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) l DOT uses Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)

Specific Job Analysis Techniques ¢ The DOT has been replaced by the Occupational Information

Specific Job Analysis Techniques ¢ The DOT has been replaced by the Occupational Information Network (O*NET; www. onetcenter. org) ¢ Functional job analysis is helpful when the job analyst must create job descriptions for a large number of positions.

Specific Job Analysis Techniques ¢ The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) assesses several qualities (elements)

Specific Job Analysis Techniques ¢ The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) assesses several qualities (elements) of jobs: Information input l Mental processes l Work output l Relationships with other persons l Job context l Other job characteristics l

Specific Job Analysis Techniques ¢ The Critical incidents technique (CIT) records specific worker behaviors

Specific Job Analysis Techniques ¢ The Critical incidents technique (CIT) records specific worker behaviors that have led to particularly successful or unsuccessful instances of job performance. ¢ Job incumbents usually provide examples of critical incidents.

Job Analysis and the ADA ¢ Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) l Requires that

Job Analysis and the ADA ¢ Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) l Requires that employers prevent employment discrimination against disabled persons. l Requires employers to understand “essential elements” of a job.

Job Evaluation and Comparable Worth ¢ Job analysis yields a job evaluation, or an

Job Evaluation and Comparable Worth ¢ Job analysis yields a job evaluation, or an assessment of the relative value of a job, and is used to determine appropriate compensation. ¢ These evaluations usually examine jobs on dimensions that are called compensable factors (e. g. , physical demands of a job, amount of training, working conditions, responsibility).

Job Evaluation and Comparable Worth ¢ The Equal Pay Act of 1963 mandates that

Job Evaluation and Comparable Worth ¢ The Equal Pay Act of 1963 mandates that men and women performing equal work receive equal pay. ¢ However, women continue to make less than men. Women make about 75% of what men make.

Job Evaluation and Comparable Worth ¢ Why is there a wage gap between men

Job Evaluation and Comparable Worth ¢ Why is there a wage gap between men and women? Men have greater access to higher paying jobs. l Women are paid less than men for performing equivalent tasks. l Similar jobs may have different titles and different ranks depending on the sex of the worker (e. g. , “records manager” vs. “personnel clerk”). l

Job Evaluation and Comparable Worth ¢ Comparable worth l The idea that jobs that

Job Evaluation and Comparable Worth ¢ Comparable worth l The idea that jobs that require equivalent knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) should be compensated equally. l Relies on valid and fair job evaluations. ¢ Exceptioning l The practice of ignoring pay discrepancies between particular jobs possessing equivalent duties and responsibilities.