Chapter 3 Emotions Attitudes and Job Satisfaction Feelings

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Chapter 3 Emotions, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction Feelings do make a difference

Chapter 3 Emotions, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction Feelings do make a difference

Chapter 3 Study Questions What are emotions and moods? What do emotions and moods

Chapter 3 Study Questions What are emotions and moods? What do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations? What are attitudes? What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -2

What are emotions and moods? Affects Ø Broad range of feelings, in the form

What are emotions and moods? Affects Ø Broad range of feelings, in the form of moods and emotions, that people experience in their life context. § Emotions are strong positive or negative feelings directed toward something. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -3

What are emotions and moods? Emotional intelligence (EI) Ø Ability to understand emotions and

What are emotions and moods? Emotional intelligence (EI) Ø Ability to understand emotions and manage relationships effectively. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -4

What are emotions and moods? Four Dimensions of Emotionally Intelligent Leadership Self. Awarenes s

What are emotions and moods? Four Dimensions of Emotionally Intelligent Leadership Self. Awarenes s Social Awareness Emotional Intelligence Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Relations hip Managem ent Self Management 3 -5

What are emotions and moods? Major Emotions Joy Anger Love Fear Sadness Surprise Copyright

What are emotions and moods? Major Emotions Joy Anger Love Fear Sadness Surprise Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -6

What are emotions and moods? Self conscious emotions Ø Arise from internal sources (shame,

What are emotions and moods? Self conscious emotions Ø Arise from internal sources (shame, guilt, embarrassment, pride) and help regulate interpersonal relationships. Social emotions Ø Arise from external sources (pity, jealousy) and refer to individuals’ feelings based on information external to themselves. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -7

What are emotions and moods? Moods Generalized positive or negative feelings or states of

What are emotions and moods? Moods Generalized positive or negative feelings or states of mind. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -8

What are emotions and moods? Emotions “I was really angry when Prof. Nitpicker criticized

What are emotions and moods? Emotions “I was really angry when Prof. Nitpicker criticized my presentation” • Identified with a source, cause • Tend to be brief, episodic • Many forms and types • Action oriented; link to behavior • Can turn into a mood Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Moods “Oh, I just don’t have the energy to do much today. I’ve felt down all week. ” • Hard to identify cause • Can be long lasting • Either positive or negative • More cerebral; less action oriented • Can influence emotion 3 -9

How do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations? Emotion and mood contagion –

How do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations? Emotion and mood contagion – spillover effects of one’s emotions and mood onto others. Emotional labor – regulating one’s emotions to display those desired by the organization. Emotional dissonance – inconsistencies between emotions we feel and emotions we project. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -10

How do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations? Deep acting Ø Trying to

How do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations? Deep acting Ø Trying to modify your true inner feelings based on display rules. Surface acting Ø Hiding true feelings while displaying different ones. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -11

How do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations? Display rules Ø Informal standards

How do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations? Display rules Ø Informal standards that govern the degree to which it is appropriate for people from different cultures to display their emotions. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -12

How do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations? Positive affect Ø tendency to

How do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations? Positive affect Ø tendency to be perceptually positive Negative affect Ø tend to experience negative moods in a wide range of settings and under many different conditions Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -13

How do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations? Work Environment: • Characteristics of

How do emotions and moods influence behavior in organizations? Work Environment: • Characteristics of job • Job demands • Emotional labor requirements Work Events: • Daily hassles • Daily uplifts Job Satisfaction Emotional Reactions: • Positive • Negative Job Performance Personal Predispositions: • Personality • Mood Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -14

What are attitudes? Attitude Ø Predisposition to respond in a positive or negative way

What are attitudes? Attitude Ø Predisposition to respond in a positive or negative way to someone or something in one’s environment. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -15

What are attitudes? Cognitive component Ø Underlying beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information a person

What are attitudes? Cognitive component Ø Underlying beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information a person possesses. Affective component Ø Specific feeling regarding the personal impact of the antecedents. Behavioral component Ø Intention to behave in a certain way based on your specific feelings or attitudes. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -16

What are attitudes? ANTECEDENT S • Values • “Job responsibility is important. ” ATTITUDE

What are attitudes? ANTECEDENT S • Values • “Job responsibility is important. ” ATTITUDE • Feelings • “I don’t like my job. ” Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. RESULT • Intended behavior. • “I’m going to quit my job. ” 3 -17

What are attitudes? Cognitive dissonance Ø A psychologically disturbing state of inconsistency between an

What are attitudes? Cognitive dissonance Ø A psychologically disturbing state of inconsistency between an individual’s attitudes and his or her behavior. Cognitive dissonance can be reduced by: Ø Changing the underlying attitude. Ø Changing future behavior. Ø Developing new ways of explaining or rationalizing the inconsistency. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -18

What are attitudes? Job satisfaction Ø An attitude that reflects whether individuals feel positively

What are attitudes? Job satisfaction Ø An attitude that reflects whether individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs. Job Involvement Ø Degree to which individuals are dedicated to their jobs. Organizational Commitment Ø Degree of loyalty to the organization. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -19

What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? Five facets of job satisfaction:

What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? Five facets of job satisfaction: Ø The work itself Ø Quality of supervision Ø Relationships with co-workers Ø Promotion opportunities Ø Pay Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -20

Your experience… The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) is a questionnaire that addresses aspects of

Your experience… The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) is a questionnaire that addresses aspects of satisfaction with which good managers should be concerned. Take the sample survey. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -21

What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? Withdrawal effects Ø Dissatisfied workers

What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? Withdrawal effects Ø Dissatisfied workers are absent more frequently, are not engaged in their work (daydreaming, socializing, web surfing), and are more likely to quit. Ø Employee turnover results in costly corporate impact: § Loss of talent § Replacement cost Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -22

What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? Organizational Citizenship Ø Behaviors that

What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? Organizational Citizenship Ø Behaviors that represent employees’ willingness to go the extra mile in their work. § Advancing organizational interests, positive attitudes and public comments. § Helping behaviors that are unsolicited (volunteering, mentoring). Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -23

What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? Relationship between satisfaction and performance

What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? Relationship between satisfaction and performance – three theories: Ø Satisfaction causes performance. Ø Performance causes satisfaction. Ø Rewards cause satisfaction and performance. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -24

What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? Theory: Satisfaction causes performance Ø

What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? Theory: Satisfaction causes performance Ø Managerial implication — to increase employees’ work performance, make them happy. Ø Job satisfaction alone is not a consistent predictor of work performance. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -25

What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? Theory: performance causes satisfaction Ø

What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? Theory: performance causes satisfaction Ø Managerial implication — help people achieve high performance, then satisfaction will follow. Ø Performance in a given time period is related to satisfaction in a later time period. Ø Rewards link performance with later satisfaction. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -26

What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? Theory: rewards cause both satisfaction

What is job satisfaction and what are its implications? Theory: rewards cause both satisfaction and performance Ø Managerial implication — Proper allocation of rewards can positively influence both satisfaction and performance. Ø High job satisfaction and performance-contingent rewards influence a person’s work performance. Ø Size and value of the reward should vary in proportion to the level of one’s performance. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -27

What do you think… If you won the lotto, would you ever work again?

What do you think… If you won the lotto, would you ever work again? Consider the meanings we derive from work (social identity, accomplishment, achievement). How would replace these? Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 3 -28