CHAPTER 3 DATABASES AND DATA WAREHOUSES STUDENT LEARNING

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CHAPTER 3 DATABASES AND DATA WAREHOUSES

CHAPTER 3 DATABASES AND DATA WAREHOUSES

STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES 1. Describe business intelligence and its role 2. Compare databases and

STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES 1. Describe business intelligence and its role 2. Compare databases and data warehouses 3. List/describe key characteristics of a relational database 4. Define 5 software components of a DBMS 3 -2

THE RELATIONAL DATABASE MODEL • There are many types of databases • The relational

THE RELATIONAL DATABASE MODEL • There are many types of databases • The relational database model is the most popular • Relational database – uses a series of logically related two-dimensional tables or files to store information in the form of a database 3 -3

Databases Are… • • Collections of information Created with logical structures With logical ties

Databases Are… • • Collections of information Created with logical structures With logical ties within the information With built-in integrity constraints 3 -4

Databases – Collections of Information • Databases have many tables • Consider Solomon Enterprises

Databases – Collections of Information • Databases have many tables • Consider Solomon Enterprises that provides concrete to home and commercial builders. Tables or files include: – Order – Customer – Concrete Type – Employee – Truck 3 -5

Databases – Collections of Information 3 -6

Databases – Collections of Information 3 -6

Databases – Created with Logical Structures • In databases, the row number is irrelevant

Databases – Created with Logical Structures • In databases, the row number is irrelevant • Not true in spreadsheet software • In databases, column names are very important. Column names are created in the data dictionary • Data dictionary – contains the logical structure of the information in a database 3 -7

Databases – With Logical Ties Within the Information • Logical ties must exist between

Databases – With Logical Ties Within the Information • Logical ties must exist between the tables or files in a database • Logical ties are created with primary and foreign keys • Primary key – field (or group of fields in some cases) that uniquely describes each record • Can you find primary keys in Figure 3. 1 on page 129? 3 -8

Databases – With Logical Ties Within the Information • Foreign key – primary key

Databases – With Logical Ties Within the Information • Foreign key – primary key of one file that appears in another file • Foreign keys help you create logical ties within the information in a database 3 -9

Databases – With Logical Ties Within the Information 3 -10

Databases – With Logical Ties Within the Information 3 -10

Databases – With Built-In Integrity Constraints • Integrity constraints – rules that help ensure

Databases – With Built-In Integrity Constraints • Integrity constraints – rules that help ensure the quality of the information • Examples – Primary keys must be unique – Foreign keys must be present – Sales price cannot be negative – Phone number must have area code 3 -11

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TOOLS • Database management system (DBMS) – helps you specify the

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TOOLS • Database management system (DBMS) – helps you specify the logical organization for a databases and access and use the information within a database – Word processing software = document – Spreadsheet software = workbook – DBMS software = database 3 -12

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TOOLS • 5 software components: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. DBMS

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TOOLS • 5 software components: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. DBMS engine Data definition subsystem Data manipulation subsystem Application generation subsystem Data administration subsystem 3 -13

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TOOLS 3 -14

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TOOLS 3 -14

DBMS Engine • DBMS engine – accepts logical requests from the various other DBMS

DBMS Engine • DBMS engine – accepts logical requests from the various other DBMS subsystems, converts them into their physical equivalent, and actually accesses the database and data dictionary as they exist on a storage device • DBMS engine separates the logical from the physical 3 -15

DBMS Engine • Physical view – how information is physically arranged, stored, and accessed

DBMS Engine • Physical view – how information is physically arranged, stored, and accessed on some type of storage device • Logical view – how you as a knowledge worker need to arrange and access information • With a database, you only concern yourself with your logical view 3 -16

Data Definition Subsystem • Data definition subsystem – helps you create and maintain the

Data Definition Subsystem • Data definition subsystem – helps you create and maintain the data dictionary and define the structure of the files in a database • You must create a data dictionary before entering information into a database • Module J covers this for Microsoft Access 3 -17

Data Manipulation Subsystem • Data manipulation subsystem – helps you add, change, and delete

Data Manipulation Subsystem • Data manipulation subsystem – helps you add, change, and delete information • This is your primary DBMS interface as you work with a database – Views – Report generators – QBE tools – SQL 3 -18

Views • View – allows you to see the contents of a database file

Views • View – allows you to see the contents of a database file – Make whatever changes you want – Perform simple sorting – Query to find the location of information – Looks similar to a workbook with no row numbers 3 -19

Views 3 -20

Views 3 -20

Report Generators • Report generator – helps you quickly define formats of reports and

Report Generators • Report generator – helps you quickly define formats of reports and what information you want to see in a report • You can save report formats and generate reports at any time with up-to-date information 3 -21

Report Generators 3 -22

Report Generators 3 -22

Report Generators 3 -23

Report Generators 3 -23

QBE Tools • Query-by-example (QBE) tool – helps you graphically design the answer to

QBE Tools • Query-by-example (QBE) tool – helps you graphically design the answer to a question • “What driver most often delivers concrete to Triple A Homes? ” 3 -24

QBE Tools 3 -25

QBE Tools 3 -25

SQL • Structured query language (SQL) – standardized fourth-generation language found in most DBMSs

SQL • Structured query language (SQL) – standardized fourth-generation language found in most DBMSs • Performs the same task as a QBE tool – But uses a sentence structure instead of pointand-click interface • SQL is used mostly by IT people 3 -26

Application Generation Subsystem • Application generation subsystem – contains facilities to help you develop

Application Generation Subsystem • Application generation subsystem – contains facilities to help you develop transaction-intensive applications – Data entry screen (called forms) – Programming languages • Used mostly by IT specialists 3 -27

Data Administration Subsystem • Data administration subsystem – helps you manage the overall database

Data Administration Subsystem • Data administration subsystem – helps you manage the overall database environment – Backup and recovery – Security management – Query optimization – Concurrency control – Change management 3 -28

What Is a Data Warehouse? • Data warehouse – logical collection of information –

What Is a Data Warehouse? • Data warehouse – logical collection of information – gathered from operational databases – used to create business intelligence that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks 3 -29

What Is a Data Warehouse? 3 -30

What Is a Data Warehouse? 3 -30

What Is a Data Warehouse? • • Multidimensional Rows and columns Also layers Many

What Is a Data Warehouse? • • Multidimensional Rows and columns Also layers Many times called hypercubes 3 -31

Data Marts • Data warehouses can support all of an organization’s information • Data

Data Marts • Data warehouses can support all of an organization’s information • Data marts have subsets of an organizationwide data warehouse • Data mart – subset of a data warehouse in which only a focused portion of the data warehouse information is kept 3 -32

Data Marts 3 -33

Data Marts 3 -33

Data Mining as a Career Opportunity • Knowledge of data mining can be a

Data Mining as a Career Opportunity • Knowledge of data mining can be a substantial career opportunity for you – Query and Analysis and Enterprise Analytic Tools (Business Objects) – Business Intelligence and Information Access tools (SAS) – Many in Cognos (the data warehouse leader) – Power. Analyzer (Informatica) 3 -34

MANAGING THE INFORMATION RESOURCE • Who should oversee your organization’s information resource? – Chief

MANAGING THE INFORMATION RESOURCE • Who should oversee your organization’s information resource? – Chief information officer (CIO) – oversees an organization’s information resource – Data administration – plans for, oversees the development of, and monitors the information resource – Database administration – technical and operational aspects of managing information 3 -35

CAN YOU… 1. Describe business intelligence and its role 2. Compare databases and data

CAN YOU… 1. Describe business intelligence and its role 2. Compare databases and data warehouses 3. List/describe key characteristics of a relational database 4. Define 5 software components of a DBMS 3 -36

CHAPTER 3 End of Chapter 3

CHAPTER 3 End of Chapter 3