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Chapter 28 Fighting the Persian Wars CHAPTER 28 PRE-READING Ø What is Chapter 28's Essential Question? Ø List the section titles below. Section Title 28. 1: Introduction Event A: Event B: Event C: Event D: Event E: Ø This chapter looks at the Persian Wars—the fight between Persia and Greek city-states. Make a prediction: Who do you think will win the Greco-Persian Wars? Ø Based on the information above, what predictions can you make about the main idea of the chapter?
CHAPTER 28 VOCABULARY Directions: Record the definition for each vocabulary term. Each definition has been underlined for you in the text. The reading section letter (Event A, B, C, etc. ) has been provided for you. Persian Empire (A) - Pheidippides (C) - Ten Thousand Immortals (A) - Miltiades (C) - Darius (A) - infantry (C) - Persepolis (A) - Xerxes (D) - Ionia (B) - Hellespont (D) - Miletus (B) - Leonidas (D) - Ionian Revolt (B) - Themistocles (D) -
Event A: The Expansion of the Persian Empire 1. On the map below, color the Persian Empire in RED and Greece in BLUE. Don’t forget to shade in the key appropriately. 2. Describe the Persian Empire. What territories did it control? • Persia stretched from __________ to _____, and from the _______ Sea to _____ and ______. • They overwhelmed their opponent with their highly-trained ____, and expanded their territory by __________ new peoples. 3. How did Darius rule his empire? • Persian kings avoided ruling their subjects by… _________________. • He divided his empire into 20 _________, each run by an appointed ________. • Although the people had to pay _____, they were allowed to keep their own ________ , ________, and ____. 4. How was Greece different than the Persian Empire? PERSIAN EMPIRE • Had an incredible amount of ______ and built new capital to show it. • Darius and the Persians were driven to conquer ______. • Gaining more territory would give Darius control of many Greek ____________. GREECE • Divided into hundreds of independent ____-______. • Because of Greece’s _________, they had very little _______ with one another. • City-states had limited _________, and some were relatively ____.
Event B: The Ionian Revolt 1. Why did the Persians invade Ionia? • The Persians realized the rich ________ and accessible _______ could be used to create a _____ network. 2. Describe Persian rule, once they had control of Ionia. • Persians set up Greek “______” to ______ the area. • Forced the Ionians to pay _______ and to serve in the Persian ____. • The Ionians resented the Persians for taking over their ____________. 3. How did the mainland Greeks react when the Ionians revolted against the Persians? • Ionians asked for help from ______, but they refused because… ____________________________________. • Instead, ______ and _______ sent ships and troops for support. 4. Describe the events and outcomes of the five year Ionian Revolt. • The Persian king Darius ordered his troops to sail to Greece to ______ the __________ city-states, so many city-states ___________. • Athenian and Ionian troops battled together against the Persian Empire for five years, but eventually the ________ defeated the _______. • The Persians burned the Ionian city of _______ to the ground, and sold its people as ______. 5. How did the Persian king Darius react after he had stopped the revolt? • Darius was determined to make the _______ pay for the losses his ____ had suffered. • He was, however, even more furious with the _________ who had assisted the Ionians. 6. The Ionian ______, which ended in ______ B. C. E. , marked the beginning of the _______ Wars.
Event C: The Battle of Marathon 1. Why did the Persian king Darius send troops to Greece? How many troops did Persia have, compared with Athens? 2. How did the Athens prepare for the Persian attack? 3. Who is Miltiades? 4. Describe the events and outcome of the Battle of Marathon. 5. 6. What is the legend of Pheidippides? What two factors helped the Athenians defeat the Persians at Marathon?
Event D: The Battle of Thermopylae 1. Who is Xerxes? How did he prepare his attack on Greece? • Xerxes is the son of ______ and the king of ______. • Xerxes put together an army of _______ soldiers and ______ ships to attack ________ Greece. 2. Describe how Xerxes got to Greece. • Constructed two _______ of boats _____ together to cross the __________, a 33 -mile-long sea channel that separates ______ and ____. 3. Explain the two part strategy the Greeks took to fight the Persians. • ______ and ______ decided to work together to stop the Persians from advancing into _______ and ________ Greece. • First, the ________ navy had to stop the Persian ____ from supplying reinforcements to its land forces. • Second, the Spartan king ________agreed to set up defenses at ___________. 4. Explain how the geography of Greece greatly influenced the Battle of Thermopylae. • Thermopylae is a narrow pass between _________ and ______ about ______ miles northwest of ______. • Xerxes ordered his troops to advance through the ______. • The Persians were unable to use their superior numbers in the narrow space, and suffered severe ______. 5. Describe the final events and outcome of the Battle of Thermopylae. • A _____ traitor showed the Persians a ______ path around the pass and through the mountains that allowed them to attack the Spartans from ______. • A small force, led by ________, tried to defend Thermopylae. Outnumbered, they fought until every last man was ____.
Event E: The Battle of Salamis 1. How did the Greek loss at Thermopylae affect the city-state of Athens? 2. Who was Themistocles? What was his strategy against the Persians? 3. Explain how Themistocles tricked the Persian king Xerxes. 4. Describe the events and outcome of the Battle of Salamis. 5. What two factors greatly influenced the outcome of the Battle of Salamis? 6. The loss at Salamis forced Xerxes to retreat back to ___________, near Ionia. Finally, in 479 B. C. E. , the Greek army defeated the Persians at the Battle of _______, forcing the Persians to retreat completely from Asia Minor, ending the Persian Wars!