- Slides: 11
CHAPTER 28 APUSH |11 SLIDES
REFORM CONTINUES After the Greenback Labor party and the Populist party of the late 19 th Century, people began to argue that the US could no longer afford laissez-faire policies. Progressivism is the support for the improvement of society through reform. Progressives fought against the aggregation of wealth and social injustice. Jacob Riis, “How the Other Half Lives” Social Gospel: progressivism based on Christian teachings, ex: religious doctrine to demand better conditions for the poor.
MUCKRAKERS Journalists who often wrote exposes of widespread corruption in America, including business manipulation of the gov’t, child labor, and the illegal activities of trusts. Ida Tarbell went after Standard Oil and their take overs of small businesses in the same market. Lincoln Steffens’ “The Shame of Cities” brought to light the cooperation of businesses and municipal government. Thomas Nast’s political cartoons exposed political machines as money-making vote-stealing entities. David G. Phillips wrote “The Treason of the Senate” which accused 75% of the US Senate to be representing RRs and trusts rather than the American people. Others also attacked “white slavery” (aka human trafficking), workplace safety or lack thereof, the country’s illiteracy rates, the treatment of African-Americans in the South, child labor, and the extreme use of often habit-forming medicines. “To right social wrongs, they counted on publicity and an aroused public conscience, not drastic political change. ”
POLITICAL PROGRESSIVISM Two goals: 1) use the gov’t to curb monopoly power and 2) improve the common person’s conditions of life and labor. More successful in cities and states. Represented “a broadly dispersed majority mood. ” Formulated to put political power back into the hands of the people rather than “interests” through Initiative: voters propose legislation on their own Referendum: legislative approval by ballot Recall: removes faithless elected officials Further goals of secret ballots, the 17 th Amendment, women’s suffrage.
FEMALE PROGRESSIVES Justified Progressivism as representing an extension of traditional roles and as such focused on “maternal” issues like child labor, sanitation and disease prevention, temperance, and food safety. Muller v. Oregon: Supreme Court ruling that accepted the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers but also “closed” certain jobs to women. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire led to many laws that regulated hours, conditions, and compensation. WCTU and the temperance fought against the liquor and saloon industries at nearly 1 million strong and leading many individual counties and states to pass “dry” laws. The 18 th Amendment prohibiting the sale, manufacture, and transportation of alcohol was passed in 1919.
THE SQUARE DEAL TR’s domestic policies were heavily influenced by Progressivism unlike his imperialist foreign policy. The Square Deal embraced three C’s: control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. The first test of the Square Deal came in 1902 with a coal miners strike. The workers demanded a pay increase and a reduction of working hours to prevent accidents. The mine owners refused to negotiate, and many factories, hospitals, and schools were forced to shut down as the nation’s coal supply dwindled. Roosevelt invited the strikers and mine owners to the White House to settle the matter. He shocked mine owners by threatening to seize the mines and manning them with federal troops. This was the first time that the gov’t had gone against business owners rather than workers.
OTHER DOMESTIC POLICIES Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890): law which forbade trusts or combinations of businesses Elkins Act (1903): law that imposed penalties on railroads that offered rebates and the customers who accepted them. Hepburn Act (1906): eliminated “free pass” bribes, expanded the Interstate Commerce Commission with the authority to nullify existing rates and stipulate maximum rates. Good trusts vs. Bad trusts: TR chose to go after trusts regulate rather than punish. He took on those that put the public at an extreme disadvantage. His actions were “to prove conclusively that government, not private business, ruled the country. ” Meat Inspection Act (1906): meat shipped across state lines would be subject to federal inspection. Pure Food and Drug Act (1906): prevented the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals.
CONSERVATION TR promoted irrigation projects by both the federal government and individuals through the sale of land. He also started forestry reclamation projects in order to preserve America’s forests. The Hetchy Valley Dam in Yosemite National Park started a controversy between the conservationists of the US as some believed it was destructive to “civilize nature” and others who felt that nature needed to be utilized intelligently. TR was in that second group, and the Supreme Court later ruled in favor of the dam which would supply water to the city of San Francisco.
THE TAFT ADMINISTRATION William Howard Taft was elected in 1908 and entered the office of president as Roosevelt’s chosen successor with TR’s policies. “Dollar Diplomacy” replaced the “Big Stick”’s stick with money as a threat and a way to boost American interests abroad. This wasn’t as successful as many had hoped, as not every country consented to being bought out, and armed intervention was more need in the Caribbean rather than money. Trust-busting with Taft: Brought 90 lawsuits against various trusts and corporations, most of which were successful, including the 1911 decision by the Supreme Court ordering the dissolution of Standard Oil. This upgraded the Sherman Anti-Trust Act with the Court’s “rule of reason” which stated “that only those combinations that ‘unreasonably’ restrained trade were illegal. ” Payne-Aldrich Bill (1909): initially intended to lower tariffs but revised beyond recognition to retain high rates on most imports, angering Progressive Republicans.
THE ELECTION OF 1912 Taft had alienated most of his supporters and the Republican Party with the Payne-Aldrich Bill and his lackluster conservation efforts, about which Roosevelt could not keep silent. After losing the Republican nomination in 1912, Roosevelt created his own political party, the Bull Moose Party. The Democrats nominated a relatively new politician from New Jersey, Woodrow Wilson, arming him with a progressive platform which had been dubbed the New Freedom program. Both TR’s New Nationalism and Wilson’s New Freedom favored a more active gov’t in economic and social affairs and adhered to strong aspects of Progressivism. Wilson easily won the election despite TR’s popularity with 435 electoral votes. Roosevelt brought in 88 electoral votes, a hefty sum for a third party candidate, while Taft managed to secure… 8.
ROOSEVELT VS. WILSON New Nationalism Supported continued consolidation of trusts and labor unions. Increase regulatory agencies. Women’s suffrage. Broad social welfare programs including minimum wage laws and publicly supported health care. New Freedom Favored small enterprise and entrepreneurship. Free functioning markets that were unregulated but also unmonopolized, which meant more vigorous enforcement of anti-trust laws. Banking reform. Tariff reduction.