- Slides: 33
Chapter 26 Origins of the Cold War
Origins of the Cold War • The United States and the Soviet Union emerge from World War II as two “superpowers” with vastly different political and economic systems. Ch. 26
The Cold War [1945 -1991]: An Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread worldwide Communism METHODOLOGIES: 1. Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] 2. Arms Race [nuclear escalation] 3. Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” 4. Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
Origins of the Cold War • U. S. -Soviet Relations • U. S. , U. S. S. R. have very different economic, political systems • U. S. suspicious of Stalin because he had been Hitler’s ally • Stalin resents that U. S. delayed attacking Germany and hid atom bomb
Origins of the Cold War • The Potsdam Conference • July 1945 conference with U. S. , Great Britain, Soviet Union • Soviets refuse to allow free elections –continue to control economics of Eastern Europe – believe that they are entitled because of the heavy losses during WWII.
The Potsdam Conference POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945 Present: Churchill, Truman and Stalin
Spread of Communism • Soviets set up communist governments throughout Eastern Europe • “Once they arrive, take control, THEY DON’T LEAVE! • 1946, Stalin announces war between communism, capitalism inevitable • Competition between U. S. & Soviet Union: (1) US wants world to be FREE/OPEN (2) Soviets want world to be DOMINATED/CLOSED
U. S. Policy of Containment • According to George Kennan and “X-Article”… • U. S. policy of containment—measures to prevent spread of communism • During famous speech, Churchill describes division of Europe as “Iron Curtain” [Visual-Next Slide]
U. S. Policy of CONTAINMENT Goals Means Actual Application 1. Restoration of the balance of power Encouragement of self-confidence in nations threatened by Soviet expansion. Long-term program of U. S. economic assistance [Marshall Plan] 2. Reduction of Soviet ability to project outside power. Exploiting the tensions in international communism. Cooperation with communist regimes; (supporting Titoism in Yugoslavia) 3. Modifying the Soviet concept of international relations. Negotiating settlement of outstanding differences. Using “carrot stick”; containing Germany with an embrace and Russia at arms length.
Cold War in Europe • The Truman Doctrine • 1945– 1991 Cold War— conflict between U. S. & U. S. S. R. neither nation directly confronts the other on battlefield = “Proxy War” • Truman Doctrine— support against armed minorities, outsiders Truman and advisors Dean Acheson and Warren Austin after signing Truman Doctrine, March 1947 Truman Doctrine signaled the end of “U. S. isolationism”!
Cold War in Europe • The Marshall Plan • 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall proposes aid to nations in need • Marshall Plan revives 16 nations
Cold War in Europe • The Berlin Airlift 1948, Stalin closes highway, rail routes into West Berlin • Berlin airlift—Britain, U. S. fly food, supplies into West Berlin • 1949, Stalin lifts blockade • Federal Republic of Germany, German Democratic Republic form
Grateful Berlin to honor airlift veterans Relief effort marked beginnings of Cold War, Western alliance May 11, 1998 Web posted at: 9: 24 a. m. EDT (1324 GMT) (CNN) -- "They called me the 'Candy Bomber, '" Gail Halvorsen remembers. "But the kids in Berlin called me 'Uncle Wiggly Wings. ' That's because I wiggled the wings of the airplane when I came in over Berlin. " Fifty years ago, Halvorsen earned his unusual nicknames as a pilot in what many call the largest humanitarian mission ever. The Berlin Airlift brought needed supplies to the besieged city for 11 months, in one of the first confrontations of the Cold War.
The NATO Alliance • Fear of Soviets leads to North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) • European nations, U. S. , Canada pledge mutual military support
Communism Spreads • • China Becomes Communist Led by Mao Zedong, Peasants flock to Red Army By 1945, communists control north China
The Korean War • 38 th parallel (38° N latitude) divides Japanese surrender in Korea • North of 38 th parallel surrenders to U. S. S. R. ; south to U. S. • Republic of Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea founded
Korean War • North Korea Attacks South Korea • 1950, North Korea invades South, begins Korean War • South Korea calls on UN to stop invasion; Security Council approves • Mac. Arthur put in command of South Korean, U. S. , other forces “Psy-Op” Leaflet Gen. George Mac. Arthur
Mac. Arthur vs. Truman • Mac. Arthur recommends Attacking China • Mac. Arthur calls for war with China; Truman rejects request • Soviet Union, China have mutual assistance pact • UN, South Korea retake Seoul, advance north to 38 th parallel
Mac. Arthur vs. Truman • Mac. Arthur continues to push for invasion of China; Truman fires him • Public outraged over hero’s dismissal • Congressional committee investigation concludes Truman right
Korean War – A Dead End • Settling for a Stalemate • 1951, Soviet Union suggests cease-fire • 1953 armistice: Korea still divided; demilitarized zone (DMZ) established • Lack of success, high human, financial costs help elect Eisenhower
Selling Atomic Secrets • The Rosenbergs • 1949, Soviets explode atomic bomb sooner than expected • Physicist Klaus Fuchs admits giving information about U. S. bomb • Ethel, Julius Rosenberg, minor Communist Party activists, implicated • Rosenbergs sentenced to death; Supreme Court upholds conviction
Mc. Carthy’s Tactics • Senator Joseph Mc. Carthy a strong anti-Communist activist • Mc. Carthyism— attacking suspected Communists without evidence • Mc. Carthy claims Communists in State Department "I intend doing this job until we win the war on Communism or until I die. " --Sen. Joe Mc. Carthy, 1954
Brinkmanship Rules U. S. Policy • Race for the H-Bomb • H-bomb—hydrogen bomb—nuclear weapon more powerful than atom bomb • 1952, U. S. explodes first H-bomb • 1953, Soviets explode one… GAME ON!
The Policy of Brinkmanship • Idea of John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State under Dwight D. Eisenhower • Dulles proposes brinkmanship policy: • “brinkmanship” – now willing to take mass retaliation to the “brink” of total nuclear war • “MAD” (mutually assured destruction) • What does it mean? • Nuclear threat unlike any before: millions can die; nation prepares
The Warsaw Pact • U. S. - Soviet relations ‘thaw’ after Stalin’s death in 1953 • West Germany’s entry into NATO scares Soviets • Form Warsaw Pact—military alliance with 7 Eastern European countries
Warsaw Pact Countries
The Eisenhower Doctrine • Soviet prestige in Middle East rises because of support for Egypt • Eisenhower Doctrine—U. S. will defend Middle East against communists
Eisenhower Doctrine – Suez Canal Crisis and Lebanon