Chapter 24 Functional Behavior Assessment Cooper Heron and

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Chapter 24: Functional Behavior Assessment Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition

Chapter 24: Functional Behavior Assessment Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 1

Functions of Problem Behavior • Positive Reinforcement – “Getting something” • Negative Reinforcement –

Functions of Problem Behavior • Positive Reinforcement – “Getting something” • Negative Reinforcement – “Getting out of something” • These functions can be – Socially mediated – Non-socially mediated (automatic) Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 2

Positive Reinforcement • Social – Attention from others – Access to tangible stimuli •

Positive Reinforcement • Social – Attention from others – Access to tangible stimuli • Automatic – Physical Stimulation Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 3

Negative Reinforcement • Social – Escape from aversive or difficult tasks • Automatic –

Negative Reinforcement • Social – Escape from aversive or difficult tasks • Automatic – Escape from aversive stimulation Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 4

Function vs. Topography • Topography = form of the behavior • Function = function

Function vs. Topography • Topography = form of the behavior • Function = function of the behavior • Different topographies of problem behavior – Can serve the same function – Can serve different functions • Similar topographies of problem behavior – Can serve the same function – Can serve different functions • Function is more important for intervention than form Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 5

FBA and Intervention • When the function of problem behavior has been identified, intervention

FBA and Intervention • When the function of problem behavior has been identified, intervention can consist of: – Altering antecedent variables – Altering consequent variables – Teaching alternative behaviors Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 6

Altering Antecedent Variables • Change and/or eliminate – Motivating operation for problem behavior –

Altering Antecedent Variables • Change and/or eliminate – Motivating operation for problem behavior – Discriminative stimuli that trigger problem behavior Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 7

Altering Consequent Variables • Place problem behavior on extinction – Withhold identified reinforcer when

Altering Consequent Variables • Place problem behavior on extinction – Withhold identified reinforcer when problem behavior occurs Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 8

Teaching Alternative Behaviors • Select appropriate behaviors that serve the same function • Provide

Teaching Alternative Behaviors • Select appropriate behaviors that serve the same function • Provide reinforcer that previously maintained problem behavior contingent upon the new, alternative behavior Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 9

FBA and Default Technologies • Default Technologies – Intrusive, coercive, or punishment-based interventions –

FBA and Default Technologies • Default Technologies – Intrusive, coercive, or punishment-based interventions – Often selected arbitrarily • Understanding why a behavior occurs suggests how it can be changed • Conducting FBAs and understanding why a behavior occurs decreases reliance on default technologies Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 10

FBA and Prevention of Problem Behavior • When default technologies are used, other problem

FBA and Prevention of Problem Behavior • When default technologies are used, other problem behaviors may emerge – The use of FBA for developing intervention may avoid the development of new problem behaviors • FBA may identify conditions that pose risks for the development of future problem behaviors Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 11

Level of Difficulty Level of Precision Continuum of FBA Methods Analog functional analysis Direct

Level of Difficulty Level of Precision Continuum of FBA Methods Analog functional analysis Direct observation in natural routine Indirect Assessments Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 12

Functional (Experimental) Analysis • Antecedents and consequences are arranged so that their separate effects

Functional (Experimental) Analysis • Antecedents and consequences are arranged so that their separate effects on problem behavior can be observed and measured • Often referred to as analog – Similar to what is occurring in natural routine, but more systematic – Allows for better control Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 13

Typical Conditions • • • Contingent attention Contingent escape Alone Control (e. g. ,

Typical Conditions • • • Contingent attention Contingent escape Alone Control (e. g. , “free play”) These are presented one at a time until a pattern of problem behavior emerges Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 14

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Attention Function Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Attention Function Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 15

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Escape Function Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Escape Function Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 16

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Automatic Reinforcement Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Automatic Reinforcement Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 17

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Undifferentiated Pattern Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition

Interpreting Functional Analyses: Undifferentiated Pattern Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 18

Advantages of Functional Analysis • Yields a clear demonstration of the variable(s) that relate

Advantages of Functional Analysis • Yields a clear demonstration of the variable(s) that relate to the occurrence of problem behavior • Serve as the standard to which all other forms of FBA are evaluated • Enable the development of effective reinforcement-based treatment Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 19

Limitations of Functional Analysis • May temporarily strengthen the problem behavior • May result

Limitations of Functional Analysis • May temporarily strengthen the problem behavior • May result in the behavior acquiring new functions • Acceptability may be low • Difficult to use for serious, low frequency behaviors • If conducted in contrived settings, may not identify idiosyncratic variables related to problem behavior • Requires time, effort, and professional expertise Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 20

Descriptive FBA • Direct observation of problem behavior under naturally occurring conditions • Events

Descriptive FBA • Direct observation of problem behavior under naturally occurring conditions • Events are NOT arranged in a systematic manner • Different Forms – ABC Continuous Recording – ABC Narrative Recording – Scatterplot Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 21

ABC Continuous Recording • Record – Occurrences of targeted problem behaviors and – Selected

ABC Continuous Recording • Record – Occurrences of targeted problem behaviors and – Selected environmental events – Within the natural routine – During a specified period of time Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 22

Sample ABC Continuous Recording Form Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition

Sample ABC Continuous Recording Form Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 23

Advantages of ABC Continuous Recording • Uses precise measures • Provides useful contextual information

Advantages of ABC Continuous Recording • Uses precise measures • Provides useful contextual information and correlations regarding environmental events and the problem behavior, which can provide useful information for later functional analyses • Does not require disruption of the individual’s routine Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 24

Limitations of ABC Continuous Recording • Often, antecedents and consequences do not reliably precede

Limitations of ABC Continuous Recording • Often, antecedents and consequences do not reliably precede and follow problem behavior, making correlations difficult to detect – May use conditional probabilities • Proportion of occurrences of problem behavior preceded by a specific antecedent • Proportion of the occurrence of problem behavior followed by a specific consequence – These may be misleading, however Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 25

ABC Narrative Recording • Data are collected only when behavior(s) of interest are observed

ABC Narrative Recording • Data are collected only when behavior(s) of interest are observed • Recording is open-ended • Thus, it is less time-consuming than continuous recording Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 26

Sample Narrative Recording Form Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 27

Sample Narrative Recording Form Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 27

Limitations of ABC Narrative Recording • Utility in identifying behavioral function not established •

Limitations of ABC Narrative Recording • Utility in identifying behavioral function not established • May yield false positives because data are collected only when problem behavior occurs – The same antecedent and consequent events may be present when problem behavior is absent Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 28

Limitations of ABC Narrative Recording • Reliability may be low • Unless trained, observers

Limitations of ABC Narrative Recording • Reliability may be low • Unless trained, observers may report “inferred states” rather than events • It is often difficult to discriminate which environmental events actually occasion the problem behavior Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 29

Scatterplot • Procedure for recording the extent to which a target behavior occurs more

Scatterplot • Procedure for recording the extent to which a target behavior occurs more often at particular times than others • Divide day into blocks of time (e. g. , a series of 30 -min segments) • For each time period, enter a symbol to indicate whether problem behavior occurred a lot, some, or not at all • Analyze for patterns to identify temporal distributions of behavior and events that occur at that time Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 30

Sample Scatterplot Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 31

Sample Scatterplot Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 31

Advantages of Scatterplots • Identify time periods during which the problem behavior occurs •

Advantages of Scatterplots • Identify time periods during which the problem behavior occurs • Can be useful for pinpointing periods of the day when more focused ABC assessments can be conducted Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 32

Limitations of Scatterplots • Utility of scatterplots is unknown • Subjective in nature Cooper,

Limitations of Scatterplots • Utility of scatterplots is unknown • Subjective in nature Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 33

Indirect FBA • • • Structured interviews Checklists Rating scales Questionnaires These are all

Indirect FBA • • • Structured interviews Checklists Rating scales Questionnaires These are all considered “indirect” because they do not involve observing the behavior; rather they involve soliciting another’s recollection of the behavior Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 34

Structured Behavioral Interviews • Goal: to obtain clear and objective information about the problem

Structured Behavioral Interviews • Goal: to obtain clear and objective information about the problem behavior(s), antecedents, and consequences, as well as a plethora of other information • Several published examples – Interview significant others – Interview student him/herself Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 35

Behavior Rating Scales • Ask informants to estimate the extent to which behavior occurs

Behavior Rating Scales • Ask informants to estimate the extent to which behavior occurs under specified conditions • Hypotheses about function of behavior are based on scores associated with each condition • Those conditions with the highest score are hypothesized to be related to the problem behavior Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 36

Advantages of Indirect FBA • Useful source of information for guiding subsequent, more objective

Advantages of Indirect FBA • Useful source of information for guiding subsequent, more objective assessments • Contribute to hypothesis development regarding the variables that may occasion or maintain problem behavior • Very convenient because they do not require direct observation of behavior Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 37

Limitations of Indirect FBA • Informants may not be accurate • Informants may be

Limitations of Indirect FBA • Informants may not be accurate • Informants may be biased • Little research exists to support the reliability of information obtained from indirect assessments • Not recommended as principal means of identifying functions of behaviors. Best used for hypothesis development. Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 38

Conducting an FBA • Gather information via indirect and descriptive assessments • Interpret information

Conducting an FBA • Gather information via indirect and descriptive assessments • Interpret information and formulate hypotheses • Test hypotheses using functional analysis • Develop intervention options based on the function of problem behavior Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 39

Gathering Information • Conduct functional assessment interview with individual’s care providers – Use this

Gathering Information • Conduct functional assessment interview with individual’s care providers – Use this information to define target problem behaviors, identify and define potential antecedents and consequences, and to determine what other assessments are warranted • Conduct direct observations of the problem behavior within the natural routine – Use this information to confirm/disconfirm information obtained in interviews Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 40

Interpreting Information and Formulating Hypotheses • Write hypothesis statements in ABC format Antecedent When

Interpreting Information and Formulating Hypotheses • Write hypothesis statements in ABC format Antecedent When Tonisha is prompted to wash her hands in preparation for lunch, Behavior she screams and tantrums, which is followed by… Consequence termination of hand washing and lunch by being sent to time-out. Hypothesized function = escape from hand washing or lunch Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 41

Testing Hypotheses • Conduct a functional analysis – Always include a control condition –

Testing Hypotheses • Conduct a functional analysis – Always include a control condition – Select additional conditions depending upon hypotheses • If positive reinforcement (attention) is a hypothesis, conduct contingent attention • If negative reinforcement is a hypothesis, conduct contingent escape • If automatic reinforcement is a hypothesis, conduct alone condition – Alternate conditions in counterbalanced fashion until a pattern emerges Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 42

Brief Functional Analyses • Conducting a functional analysis in a short period of time

Brief Functional Analyses • Conducting a functional analysis in a short period of time • Procedure – Implement one session of the control condition – Implement one session of each test condition – Implement a contingency reversal Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 43

Contingency Reversal • Used to confirm hypothesis by: – Providing reinforcement for an alternative

Contingency Reversal • Used to confirm hypothesis by: – Providing reinforcement for an alternative behavior – Problem behavior no longer produces reinforcement Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 44

Sample Brief Functional Analysis with Contingency Reversal Rate of Behavior per Min Control 4

Sample Brief Functional Analysis with Contingency Reversal Rate of Behavior per Min Control 4 Cont. Attn. Cont. Esc. for Esc. Requests 3 2 1 Problem Behavior 0 1 Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 2 3 Sessions 4 5 6 45

Developing an Intervention • FBA does NOT identify the interventions that will be effective

Developing an Intervention • FBA does NOT identify the interventions that will be effective • DOES identify powerful reinforcers that can be used in intervention Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 46

Functional Equivalence • Intervention must match the function of the problem behavior • If

Functional Equivalence • Intervention must match the function of the problem behavior • If problem behavior = escape function – Intervention should provide escape for alternative behavior – OR alter task demands to make escape less reinforcing Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 47

Functional Equivalence • Intervention must match the function of the problem behavior • If

Functional Equivalence • Intervention must match the function of the problem behavior • If problem behavior = gain function – Intervention should provide desired outcome (access to attention or tangibles) for alternative behavior – OR alter antecedent conditions to make attention and/or tangibles less reinforcing Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 48

Alter the ABC Contingency Antecedent When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work…

Alter the ABC Contingency Antecedent When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work… Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Behavior Consequence Attention in the form of a reprimand discussion. He hits others, which is followed by… 49

Alter the Antecedent When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work… Deshawn is

Alter the Antecedent When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work… Deshawn is provided with a peer buddy during work/play periods Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Behavior Consequence He hits others, which is followed by… Attention in the form of a reprimand discussion. These are irrelevant because problem behavior is avoided. 50

Alter the Behavior Antecedent Behavior When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work…

Alter the Behavior Antecedent Behavior When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work… Consequence Attention in the form of a reprimand discussion. He hits others, which is followed by… Deshawn is prompted to ask a peer or adult to play/help, which is followed by… Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition Attention in the form of socialization and help. 51

Alter the Consequence Antecedent When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work… Behavior

Alter the Consequence Antecedent When Deshawn is left alone with toys or work… Behavior Consequence Attention in the form of a reprimand discussion. He hits others, which is followed by… Neutrally blocking the hitting and ignoring Deshawn. Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 52

Summary • Prior to intervention – Identify the function • Escape • Gain (attention/tangible)

Summary • Prior to intervention – Identify the function • Escape • Gain (attention/tangible) • Automatic • When designing intervention – Modify the ABC contingency Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 53

Summary • Assessment continues after intervention begins – Monitor effectiveness – Changes in function

Summary • Assessment continues after intervention begins – Monitor effectiveness – Changes in function over time Cooper, Heron, and Heward Applied Behavior Analysis, Second Edition 54