Chapter 23 New Public Identities Political Identities The

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Chapter 23: New Public Identities Political Identities The Soviet Union Dissolves Boris Yeltsin, 1991

Chapter 23: New Public Identities Political Identities The Soviet Union Dissolves Boris Yeltsin, 1991 -9 • Needed to dispose of Soviet nuclear arsenal • Russia witnessed reduction of life expectancy as well as economic decline • Won international support for Russian economy • Chechnyan revolt an ongoing problem Vladimir Putin elected president but has not solved Russian problems

Political Identities European Identity Sources of unity • • End of Iron Curtain New

Political Identities European Identity Sources of unity • • End of Iron Curtain New members of European Union Divisions of Europe tied to Cold War needs Nationalism hasn’t thwarted unity

Political Identities USA as the Lone Superpower Combined economic & military power • Japanese

Political Identities USA as the Lone Superpower Combined economic & military power • Japanese economic collapse confirmed US role • The End of History: American system is best – North Korea & Terrorism emerge as threats – Oklahoma City and World Trade Center • War on Terrorism isolates US from allies • Challenge: Can you fight terrorism and presever personal liberty at the same time?

Religious and Cultural Identities Religious identity becomes powerful force Iran under Ayotollah Khomeini Taliban

Religious and Cultural Identities Religious identity becomes powerful force Iran under Ayotollah Khomeini Taliban in Afghanistan Religious parties prompt military response in Turkey and Algeria Nigeria split by shari’a law in north Struggles in the former Yugoslavia turn on religion

Religious and Cultural Identities Hinduism and Islam in South Asia Gandhi saw Congress as

Religious and Cultural Identities Hinduism and Islam in South Asia Gandhi saw Congress as secular party Hindu nationalism emerged in 1980 s • Scorned Muslims as not truly Indian because they had adopted religion of invading force • Stressed Hindutva or “Hinduness” • Rewrote school books to highlight Hindu successes • Movement met at least momentary setback in 2004 national election

Religious and Cultural Identities Confucianism Chinese decide Confucianism is not contrary to communist values

Religious and Cultural Identities Confucianism Chinese decide Confucianism is not contrary to communist values Judaism Rising importance of nationalism in Israel Christianity Non-westerners the core of Christianity Pope John Paul II promoted ecumenism Liberation theology a 3 rd world movement

Religious and Cultural Identities Evangelical Christianity Currently 10% of Latin American Christians Pentecostals have

Religious and Cultural Identities Evangelical Christianity Currently 10% of Latin American Christians Pentecostals have special appeal for women • Call for end of “machismo” in men Emphasis is on direct, personal experience Mormon Church is a growing denomination Protestantism provides support in Latin America similar to what early Christians gained in Roman Empire

Religious and Cultural Identities Religion in the United States US is most formally religious

Religious and Cultural Identities Religion in the United States US is most formally religious industrial nation Dominant mainline groups adapted to changes in society in ‘ 60 s & ‘ 70 s Reaction from those who felt nation had drifted too far from religious moorings • Are known as fundamentalists • Polls indicate growing support for views of fundamentalism

Religious and Cultural Identities Religion in the United States [cont. ] Population shift to

Religious and Cultural Identities Religion in the United States [cont. ] Population shift to south and west sees migrants adopting local conservative views rather than holding fast to old views Confrontations ensue • Branch Davidian stand-off • Roe. V. Wade (abortion) • Clerical misconduct discredits some churches

Religious and Cultural Identities Religion in the United States [cont. ] Pornography occurs alongside

Religious and Cultural Identities Religion in the United States [cont. ] Pornography occurs alongside “Christian” guidebooks on marriage and sexuality “Born again” views a growing presence in mass media Immigrants to US bring a variety of new religions that are part of their ethnic identity

Globalization: New Economic and Cultural Identities Globalization extends the reach and relationship of people

Globalization: New Economic and Cultural Identities Globalization extends the reach and relationship of people and organizations World contains supporters and critics of the trend toward globalization Creates homogenization of culture and taste but also preservation of cultural “niches”

Globalization: New Economic and Cultural Identities The Internet and the World Wide Web Growth

Globalization: New Economic and Cultural Identities The Internet and the World Wide Web Growth of computer-based communication Internet created in 1969; 1 st virus in 1988 Usage is growing exponentially Variety of uses includes file sharing (Napster) These new technologies are expanding the gap between rich and poor Production of software moving beyond US

Globalization: New Economic and Cultural Identities Disparities, Disruptions & Crises Number of people in

Globalization: New Economic and Cultural Identities Disparities, Disruptions & Crises Number of people in poverty declined in 1990 s Economic changes affect regions, not just states • Fall of Thai currency triggered regional crisis (1997) • Depth of crisis caused by financial systems that were not “transparent” • International Monetary Fund helped region • Capital had become global but regulatory mechanisms had not

Globalization: New Economic and Cultural Identities The Global Criminal Economy Crime has gone global

Globalization: New Economic and Cultural Identities The Global Criminal Economy Crime has gone global Drugs--largest of all illegal activities Smuggling of People--human cargo Trade in women & children--sexual slavery Trade in body parts Money laundering

Globalization: New Economic and Cultural Identities The Global Criminal Economy [cont. ] Trafficking in

Globalization: New Economic and Cultural Identities The Global Criminal Economy [cont. ] Trafficking in Nuclear Materials • Many weapons in former USSR • “Nuclear club” grew because of work of Pakistan International Criminal Organizations • Closed, international organizations reach out to one another • UN forms “Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime” (2000)

Globalization: New Economic and Cultural Identities Medicine, Science, & Global Ecology Medical advances include

Globalization: New Economic and Cultural Identities Medicine, Science, & Global Ecology Medical advances include gender selection of children and longer lives AIDS remains a global challenge Cloning challenges human identity Genetic research also allows gene substitution to address inherited conditions

Ecological Issues United Nations organized against global ecological destruction (1990) Challenges include Global warming

Ecological Issues United Nations organized against global ecological destruction (1990) Challenges include Global warming Destruction of marine environment Acid Rain Deforestation

What Difference Do They Make? Have moved into the sphere of contemporary history We

What Difference Do They Make? Have moved into the sphere of contemporary history We can use the tools of historical study but are no longer doing history Can use our own identities as touchstones for understanding others Self-knowledge, historical tools, and evidence promote understanding of future