Chapter 22 The Ordeal of Reconstruction 1865 1877

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Chapter 22 The Ordeal of Reconstruction, 1865– 1877

Chapter 22 The Ordeal of Reconstruction, 1865– 1877

I. The Problems of Peace • Jefferson Davis and fellow “conspirators” – Pardoned (1868)

I. The Problems of Peace • Jefferson Davis and fellow “conspirators” – Pardoned (1868) • Conditions of the South – Old South collapsed economically and socially • Beaten but unbent – Confederates believed “lost cause” was just

II. Freedmen Define Freedom • Whites recognize emancipation realities • Blacks suspicious and uncertain

II. Freedmen Define Freedom • Whites recognize emancipation realities • Blacks suspicious and uncertain – Blacks searched for family members, jobs, homes – The church became the focus of black communities

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III. The Freedmen’s Bureau (1865 -1872) • A part of “Reconstruction” • Provided food,

III. The Freedmen’s Bureau (1865 -1872) • A part of “Reconstruction” • Provided food, clothing, medical care, education • “ 40 acres and a mule” – Failed attempt to redistribute land • The white South resented the bureau – Threatened to upset white racial dominance

Drawing of a Freedmen’s Bureau employee between two armed groups

Drawing of a Freedmen’s Bureau employee between two armed groups

IV. Johnson: The Tailor President • Union party Needed a ‘War Democrat’ – Champion

IV. Johnson: The Tailor President • Union party Needed a ‘War Democrat’ – Champion of states’ rights and the Constitution • Johnson was a ‘misfit’ – A Southerner who didn’t understand the North – A Tennessean who was distrusted by the South – A Democratic President, not elected to the office

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V. Presidential Johnson’s Reconstruction • Majority moderate group (Lincoln) – States should be restored

V. Presidential Johnson’s Reconstruction • Majority moderate group (Lincoln) – States should be restored simply and swiftly • Minority radical group (The Wade-Davis Bill) – The South should atone more painfully for its sins • A. J. ’s Reconstruction proclamation (May 1865) – Johnson supported 10% governments

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Table 22 -1 p 471

VI. The Baleful Black Codes • Designed to control emancipated blacks – Had to

VI. The Baleful Black Codes • Designed to control emancipated blacks – Had to work for the same employer for 1 year – Blacks not allowed to serve on a jury – Some barred blacks from renting or leasing land – Blacks punished for “idleness” – Nowhere were blacks allowed to vote

VII. Congressional Reconstruction • Congress meets in December, 1865 – Republicans had a free

VII. Congressional Reconstruction • Congress meets in December, 1865 – Republicans had a free hand during the war – ‘Rebel states’ high population, 12 more reps – Republicans had good reason to fear • Southern & Northern Democrats could control Congress

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VIII. Johnson Clashes with Congress • Congress ‘overrides Johnson’s veto – Freedmen’s Bureau extension

VIII. Johnson Clashes with Congress • Congress ‘overrides Johnson’s veto – Freedmen’s Bureau extension vetoed (Feb 1866) – Civil Rights Bill vetoed • The Fourteenth Amendment – Contained principles of Civil Rights Bill – OK’d by Congress(1866), ratified by states(1868) – States had to approve 14 th to be admitted to Union

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IX. Swinging ‘Round the Circle with Johnson • The crucial congressional elections of 1866

IX. Swinging ‘Round the Circle with Johnson • The crucial congressional elections of 1866 – Johnson lost support in the North • 1866 congressional elections results – Republicans a 2/3 s majority in both houses • “Veto proof Congress”

X. Republican Principles and Programs – The Radicals (led by Sumner & Stevens) –

X. Republican Principles and Programs – The Radicals (led by Sumner & Stevens) – Strongly desired racial equality – Opposed rapid restoration of Southern states • The Moderate Republicans – More states’ rights and self-government oriented – Wanted to avoid federal government involvement • Both groups supported black franchise (1867)

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XI. Reconstruction by the Sword • The Reconstruction Act (March 2, 1867) – Divided

XI. Reconstruction by the Sword • The Reconstruction Act (March 2, 1867) – Divided the South into five military districts – Laid stringent condition for readmission • Ratify 14 th Amendment, full suffrage for men • Goal of the moderates – Get Southern states back into the Union • Goals Radical Republicans – Fifteenth Amendment (1870) – Military Reconstruction of the South

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Table 22 -2 p 477

XII. No Women Voters • One struggle = black freedom/women’s rights • 13 th

XII. No Women Voters • One struggle = black freedom/women’s rights • 13 th Amendment – Feminist leaders supported • 14 th Amendment – Feminist leaders opposed • Used the word male while defining citizenship • 15 th Amendment – Feminists wanted the word sex added to the list • Fifty years would pass before the 19 th Amendment

XIII. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South • Blacks now had freedom,

XIII. The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South • Blacks now had freedom, of a sort – Union League • Network of black political clubs for men • Recruited militias to protect black communities • Increased political power – African American women’s roles • Community & church leaders • Scalawags and carpetbaggers – Scalawags, Southerners, former Unionists & Whigs – Carpetbaggers, Northerners seeking power & profit • Radical regimes rule (State Legislatures) – Passes many desirable reforms – Despite achievements corruption rampant

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XIV. The Ku Klux Klan • Embittered whites raged against “radical” rule • Most

XIV. The Ku Klux Klan • Embittered whites raged against “radical” rule • Most notorious—“Invisible Empire of the South” – Ku Klux Klan, used terror against “upstart” Blacks • The goals of white resistance – Undermined attempts to empower blacks politically – Wholesale disfranchisement of blacks in 1890

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XV. Johnson Walks the Impeachment Plank • Radicals attempt to remove President Johnson –

XV. Johnson Walks the Impeachment Plank • Radicals attempt to remove President Johnson – Tenure of Office Act (1867) • Impeachment – Johnson dismissed (Sec of War) Stanton in 1868 – House voted 126 to 47 to impeach Johnson

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XVI. A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson • Andrew Johnson impeached by House • Found

XVI. A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson • Andrew Johnson impeached by House • Found innocent – Radicals one vote short of 2/3 s majority – Seven Republicans senators voted “not guilty”

XVII. The Purchase of Alaska (1867) • Russian wanted to sell Alaskan Territory •

XVII. The Purchase of Alaska (1867) • Russian wanted to sell Alaskan Territory • U. S. wanted to buy Alaska – Russia supported the North during the Civil War – The territory had many resources – $7. 2 million was a bargain

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Map 22 -2 p 482

XVIII. The Heritage of Reconstruction • Southern Whites saw “Reconstruction” as bad – Upended

XVIII. The Heritage of Reconstruction • Southern Whites saw “Reconstruction” as bad – Upended their social, economic, & racial system – Resented federal intervention in their affairs • The Old South - resurrected not reconstructed – Continued woe for generations of southern blacks

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