Chapter 2 Section 3 Vocabulary Key Terms centrally

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Chapter 2: Section 3 Vocabulary

Chapter 2: Section 3 Vocabulary

Key Terms • centrally planned economy: an economic system in which the government makes

Key Terms • centrally planned economy: an economic system in which the government makes all decisions on the three key economic questions • command economy: another name for a centrally planned economy • socialism: a range of economic and political systems based on the belief that wealth should be distributed evenly throughout society Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 2

Key Terms, cont. • communism: a political system in which the government owns and

Key Terms, cont. • communism: a political system in which the government owns and controls all resources and means of production and makes all economic decisions • authoritarian: describing a form of government which limits individual freedoms and requires strict obedience from their citizens Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3

Chapter 2: Section 3 Centrally Planned Economy

Chapter 2: Section 3 Centrally Planned Economy

Review • As you listen, keep in mind the guiding question……? – What are

Review • As you listen, keep in mind the guiding question……? – What are the characteristics of a centrally planned economy? Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 5

Introduction • In a centrally planned economy – a command economy, the central government

Introduction • In a centrally planned economy – a command economy, the central government answers the key economic questions • The government owns both land an capital – it controls where people will work and how much they will be paid • It decides what is produced and what price things will be sold Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6

Introduction • In a centrally planned economy people usually do not own property •

Introduction • In a centrally planned economy people usually do not own property • The term socialism and communism describe two kinds of command economies • Socialists value the goal of economic equity – that economic equality is possible only if the public controls the economy Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 7

Introduction • Socialists try to spread wealth equally throughout society • Communists share many

Introduction • Socialists try to spread wealth equally throughout society • Communists share many of the goals of socialists • However, in a communist society, individuals lack personal freedom • Some socialist economies are democracies Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 8

Introduction • Some socialist countries are democracies, but communist governments have always been authoritarian

Introduction • Some socialist countries are democracies, but communist governments have always been authoritarian • Authoritarian governments severely limit personal freedom • The former Soviet Union is an example of a communist nation Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 9

Introduction • Most economic and political power was controlled by its central government •

Introduction • Most economic and political power was controlled by its central government • Under the Soviet system all workers were guaranteed employment • The government set production goals that factories and farms had to meet • The Soviets stressed heavy industry – the production of basic industrial products such as steel – not consumer goods Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10

Introduction • Centrally planned economies try to promote economic growth and more equal distribution

Introduction • Centrally planned economies try to promote economic growth and more equal distribution of goods and services • However, these systems usually fall short of their goals – without the incentive of self interest, producers have no reason to make more or better products • Most consumer goods are limited in quantity and of poor quality Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 11

Review • Using what you have learned, ask yourself the guiding question again ……?

Review • Using what you have learned, ask yourself the guiding question again ……? – What are the characteristics of a centrally planned economy? Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 12

Objectives 1. Describe how a centrally planned economy is organized. 2. Distinguish between socialism

Objectives 1. Describe how a centrally planned economy is organized. 2. Distinguish between socialism and communism. 3. Analyze the use of central planning in the Soviet Union and China. 4. Identify the disadvantages of a centrally planned economy. Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 13

Introduction • What are the characteristics of a centrally planned economy? – A centrally

Introduction • What are the characteristics of a centrally planned economy? – A centrally planned economy is characterized by: • Government answering the three economic questions • Government ownership of land, labor, and capital • Opposition to private property, free market pricing, competition, and consumer choice Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 14

How Central Planning Works • Checkpoint: Who makes key decisions in a centrally planned

How Central Planning Works • Checkpoint: Who makes key decisions in a centrally planned economy? – In a centrally planned economy (also known as a command economy), the government, rather than individual producers and consumers, answer the key economic questions. • The government owns both land capital. • The government also controls where people work and what they are paid. Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 15

Command v. Free Market • Command economies operate in direct contrast to free market

Command v. Free Market • Command economies operate in direct contrast to free market systems. • Command economies oppose: – Private property – Free market pricing – Competition – Consumer choice Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 16

Socialism • The term socialism describes a range of economic and political systems based

Socialism • The term socialism describes a range of economic and political systems based on the belief that wealth should be evenly distributed throughout society. • Socialists argue that economic equity can only exist if the centers of economic power are controlled by the government or by the public as a whole, rather than by individuals or corporations. Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 17

Market Socialism • In some nations, like Sweden, socialism coexists with free market practices.

Market Socialism • In some nations, like Sweden, socialism coexists with free market practices. • This is known as “market socialism. ” – Under this system the government uses its powers of taxation to redistribute wealth and provide extensive services. Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 18

Communism • Checkpoint: What beliefs did Karl Marx hold about capitalism? – Under communism,

Communism • Checkpoint: What beliefs did Karl Marx hold about capitalism? – Under communism, the central government owns and controls all resources and means of production. • Communism derived from the writings of Karl Marx who believed that labor was the source of all value but that under capitalism, all the profit created by laborers ended up in the hands of the property owners. • The inevitable cost of capitalism according to Marx was the exploitation of workers and an unfair distribution of wealth. Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 19

The Soviet Union • The Soviet Union became the world’s first communist state in

The Soviet Union • The Soviet Union became the world’s first communist state in 1917 and remained so until it broke up in 1991. – Soviet economic planners sought to build power and prestige and allocated the best land, labor, and capital to heavy industry. – This decision had a harsh effect on factories that made consumer goods. Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 20

The Soviet Union, cont. • Shortages were a recurring problem in the Soviet Union.

The Soviet Union, cont. • Shortages were a recurring problem in the Soviet Union. • Consumers would often wait in long lines at stores, only to discover that there was nothing to buy. Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 21

China • Government planners controlled every aspect of the Chinese economy from 1949 until

China • Government planners controlled every aspect of the Chinese economy from 1949 until the late 1970 s. – The government initially tried to keep some of the farmland private but by the 1950 s, the government forced many peasants onto farming communities. – This caused farm production to drop sharply. – Facing shortages, the government eased its control over the communes. Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 22

China, cont. • By the 1970 s, China gave more farmland to private owners.

China, cont. • By the 1970 s, China gave more farmland to private owners. • Today, China allows more economic freedom than in the past, which has given China’s economy a huge boost. Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 23

Disadvantages • Nations with command economies often have trouble meeting the basic economic goals.

Disadvantages • Nations with command economies often have trouble meeting the basic economic goals. – The complex bureaucracy of a command economy is not efficiently run and does not adjust quickly to market changes. – There is minimal, if any, economic freedom. – Innovation is not rewarded and thus economic growth is stilted. – There is no economic equity. • However, command economies do guarantee jobs and income and can be used to jump-start selected industries. Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 24

Review • Now that you have learned the characteristics of a centrally planned economy,

Review • Now that you have learned the characteristics of a centrally planned economy, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. – How does a society decide who gets what goods and services? Chapter 2, Section 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 25