- Slides: 16
Chapter 2: Revolution & Enlightenment
I. The Glorious Revolution. A. Divine Right of Kings – (16 th & 17 th centuries) European countries had absolute rulers (Louis XIV) who believed their power came directly from God. Louis XIV of France, the Sun King.
B. Glorious Revolution (1689) – Turning point in English constitutional history. -- The end of the conflict between King and Parliament. William and Mary were chosen to be the next English King and Queen. -- The Prince of Orange William III, Embarked from Holland, and Landed at Torbay, after a stormy passage. -- Painted by Joseph Turner, 1832
1. English Bill of Rights (1689) – William & Mary accepted a bill of rights from Parliament. a) Limited monarchy’s power. b) Need Parliament’s approval. c) Political & civil rights. Some of the Rights Declared: No levying taxes or suspending/dispensing of laws without approval of Parliament. Established free elections, free speech in Parliament, and an end to excessive bail or cruel punishment.
The coronation of King William III and Queen Mary II of England n It was called the “Glorious” Revolution because there was no blood spilled.
2. U. K. now a constitutional monarchy – powers of ruler are restricted by the constitution & laws. Constitutional monarchies with representative parliamentary systems are shown in red. Other constitutional monarchies (shown in magenta) have monarchs who continue to exercise political influence, albeit within certain legal restrictions.
C. U. K. ’s Legacy – Guaranteed English citizens the rule of law, individual liberties, & constitutional monarchy. 1. Completed the process started w/ the Magna Carta. 2. Set example for U. S. colonists.
II. The Enlightenment A. Enlightenment – intellectual movement during 18 th century. 1. Enlightenment thinkers used reason, logic, & science to all aspects of society. Used LOGI C and R EASO N
B. The Philosophes. 1. John Locke – Two Treatises of Government (1690). a) Gov’ts duty to protect rights of people. b) “all humans have … the right to life, liberty, & property” (aka l a n io nt ‘natural rights’). t e u it m t s rn c) n Gov’ts power from the e o v C o he t t s g n gs’ n Agai i people, not from God. k f ight o er ‘divin
2. Montesquieu – The Spirit of the Laws (1748) – Any person/group in power will try to stay in power. Id U. ea S. s u a) Wanted to limit gov’t. C s on ed st in b) ‘separation of powers, ’ itu t tio he n into 3 separate branches: i. Legislature - make laws. ii. Executive - enforce laws. iii. Judicial - interpret laws.
3. Jean-Jacques Rousseau – The Social Contract (1762) – Advocated democracy. a) The social contract is an agreement of people (general will). b) Legitimate gov’t came from the consent of the governed. c) The people would vote/choose what’s best for the community. “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains. ”
Women and the Enlightenment A Serious Proposal to the Ladies (1694) Salons “If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves? ” - Mary Astell A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) Mary Wollstonecraft
Salons were ways of spreading ideas during the Enlightenment
Scientific Revolution Ideas and People: n Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 -1543) Argued for the heliocentric (sun-centered) theory of the solar system. n Sir Francis Bacon (1561 -1626), greatest scientific experiment was stuffing snow into a dead chicken, starting inductive reasoning. n Galileo Galilei (1564 -1642) improved the telescope and made several astonishing (for the time) astronomical observations such as the phases of Venus and the moons of Jupiter, published in 1610. n Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632 -1723) constructed powerful single lens microscopes and made extensive observations published about 1660 began to open up the micro-world of biology. n Isaac Newton (1642 -1727) built upon the work of Kepler and Galileo. His development of the calculus opened up new applications of the methods of mathematics to science. He showed that an inverse square law for gravity explained the elliptical orbits of the planets, and advanced theory of Universal Gravitation.
The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, painted by Rembrandt (1632)
Activity n List the important events and people of this section and describe what (issue) they are famous for. Person Issue 1. Louis XIV 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Accepted the English Bill of Rights, limiting monarch’s power