CHAPTER 2 Justice and Virtues
Virtue Habitual and firm disposition to do the good.
Cardinal Virtues “Hinge” virtues that enable us to live moral lives.
Theological Virtues God-given virtues that direct us to our loving, Triune God.
Prudence Faith Fortitude Hope Theological Virtues Cardinal Justice Love/ Charity Temperance
Virtue Prudence - Good common sense; human reason married to truth. Fortitude - Courage to do what is true and right.
Virtue Temperance - Moderates the attraction of pleasures and provides balance in the use of created goods. Justice - We give God and our neighbor what is their due by right.
Virtue Faith - Empowers us to believe in God and all that God has said and revealed to us, including what the Church proposes for our belief, because God is truth itself.
Virtue Hope - Empowers us to trust in God’s promises. Charity/Love - Enables us to love God above everything and to love our neighbor as ourselves.
Justice As A Virtue - Commutative Justice • The justice of exchange. • Calls for fairness in agreements and exchanges between individuals or private social groups. • Equality based on what is given and what is received.
Justice As A Virtue - Distributive Justice • Justice that guarantees the common welfare. • Involves sharing. • Just distribution of the goods of creation that God intends all of us to use and share. • Concerns the obligation of the government to its citizens.
Justice As A Virtue - Legal Justice • Citizens’ obligations toward the larger society and government. • Requires a citizen to obey the laws of society and possibly serve the government.
Justice As A Virtue - Social Justice • Applies the Gospel message of Jesus Christ to the structures, systems, and laws of society in order to guarantee the rights of individuals. • Ensures that persons have a fair say in social, political, and economical institutions of society.
The Bible on Justice - Justice in the Old Testament: God’s faithfulness to the covenant made with Abraham despite the unfaithfulness of the Chosen People.
The Bible on Justice - Justice in the New Testament: v. God brought His covenant to fulfillment by sending Jesus Christ. v. Jesus’ words and actions show us the Kingdom of God.
The Bible on Justice - Justice in the New Testament: §Jesus taught the love of God and love of neighbor as oneself are the Greatest Commandments. §In order to embrace God’s kingdom, one must live according to the Beatitudes. §We are to respond to the needs of the least in our midst. (Parable of sheep and goats)
The Bible on Justice - Justice in the New Testament: §Our neighbor is everyone. (Parable of the Good Samaritan) §Be compassionate about the needs of others. (Parable of the day laborers) §Jesus’ passion death and resurrection was an act of love for all to save us. §Jesus formed a just community to carry on his work after his ascension. §Criteria to be a member of the community is to SERVE.
Catholic Social Teaching on Justice - Early Christians shared their property and goods, condemned selfishness, and encouraged sharing.
In the history of our Church, what did each person do to promote justice? üSt. Augustine of Hippo üSt. Francis of Assisi üSt. Vincent de Paul üSt. Louise de Marillac üSt. Elizabeth Ann Seton
Catholic Social Teaching on Justice - Modern Teaching: Rerum Novarum (The Condition of Labor) written by Pope Leo XIII to condemn the abuses of Marxist socialism and unbridled capitalism. - Marked the beginning of the Church’s social teaching in the modern era.
Social Justice is Essential - Working for Justice in an essential dimension of Christian living.
The Immigration Issue Ø Refugee – A person who leaves his or her country and is unwilling to return due to persecution. Ø Immigrant – A person who leaves one country to take up permanent residence in another country. Ø Migrant – One who moves within one’s country or between countries in search of work.
Vocabulary • • • virtue cardinal virtue theological virtue prudence fortitude temperance justice faith hope charity/love
Vocabulary • • • commutative justice distributive justice legal justice social justice covenant Rerum Novarum globalization refugee immigrant