Chapter 2 Application layer r 2 1 Principles

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Chapter 2: Application layer r 2. 1 Principles of network applications r 2. 2

Chapter 2: Application layer r 2. 1 Principles of network applications r 2. 2 Web and HTTP r 2. 3 FTP r 2. 4 Electronic Mail v SMTP, POP 3, IMAP r 2. 5 DNS 2: Application Layer 1

FTP: the file transfer protocol user at host FTP user client interface file transfer

FTP: the file transfer protocol user at host FTP user client interface file transfer local file system FTP server remote file system r transfer file to/from remote host r client/server model client: side that initiates transfer (either to/from remote) v server: remote host r ftp: RFC 959 r ftp server: port 21 v 2: Application Layer 2

FTP: separate control, data connections r FTP client contacts FTP server r r TCP

FTP: separate control, data connections r FTP client contacts FTP server r r TCP control connection port 21 at port 21, TCP is transport protocol TCP data connection FTP port 20 client authorized over control client server connection client browses remote r server opens another TCP directory by sending commands data connection to transfer over control connection. another file. when server receives file r control connection: “out of transfer command, server band” opens 2 nd TCP connection (for r FTP server maintains “state”: file) to client current directory, earlier after transferring one file, authentication server closes data connection. 2: Application Layer 3

FTP commands, responses Sample commands: Sample return codes r sent as ASCII text over

FTP commands, responses Sample commands: Sample return codes r sent as ASCII text over r status code and phrase (as control channel r USER username r PASS password r LIST return list of file in r r current directory r RETR filename retrieves r r STOR filename stores r (gets) file (puts) file onto remote host in HTTP) 331 Username OK, password required 125 data connection already open; transfer starting 425 Can’t open data connection 452 Error writing file 2: Application Layer 4

Chapter 2: Application layer r 2. 1 Principles of network applications r 2. 2

Chapter 2: Application layer r 2. 1 Principles of network applications r 2. 2 Web and HTTP r 2. 3 FTP r 2. 4 Electronic Mail v r 2. 6 P 2 P applications r 2. 7 Socket programming with TCP r 2. 8 Socket programming with UDP SMTP, POP 3, IMAP r 2. 5 DNS 2: Application Layer 5

Electronic Mail outgoing message queue user mailbox user agent Three major components: r user

Electronic Mail outgoing message queue user mailbox user agent Three major components: r user agents r mail servers mail server SMTP r simple mail transfer protocol: SMTP User Agent r a. k. a. “mail reader” r composing, editing, reading mail messages r e. g. , Eudora, Outlook, elm, Mozilla Thunderbird r outgoing, incoming messages stored on server SMTP mail server user agent SMTP user agent mail server user agent 2: Application Layer 6

Electronic Mail: mail servers user agent Mail Servers r mailbox contains incoming messages for

Electronic Mail: mail servers user agent Mail Servers r mailbox contains incoming messages for user r message queue of outgoing (to be sent) mail messages r SMTP protocol between mail servers to send email messages v client: sending mail server v “server”: receiving mail server SMTP mail server user agent SMTP user agent mail server user agent 2: Application Layer 7

Electronic Mail: SMTP [RFC 2821] r uses TCP to reliably transfer email message from

Electronic Mail: SMTP [RFC 2821] r uses TCP to reliably transfer email message from client to server, port 25 r direct transfer: sending server to receiving server r three phases of transfer v handshaking (greeting) v transfer of messages v closure r command/response interaction v commands: ASCII text v response: status code and phrase r messages must be in 7 -bit ASCII 2: Application Layer 8

Scenario: Alice sends message to Bob 4) SMTP client sends Alice’s message over the

Scenario: Alice sends message to Bob 4) SMTP client sends Alice’s message over the TCP connection 5) Bob’s mail server places the message in Bob’s mailbox 6) Bob invokes his user agent to read message 1) Alice uses UA to compose message and “to” [email protected] edu 2) Alice’s UA sends message to her mail server; message placed in message queue 3) Client side of SMTP opens TCP connection with Bob’s mail server 1 user agent 2 mail server 3 mail server 4 5 6 user agent 2: Application Layer 9

Sample SMTP interaction S: C: S: C: C: C: S: 220 hamburger. edu HELO

Sample SMTP interaction S: C: S: C: C: C: S: 220 hamburger. edu HELO crepes. fr 250 Hello crepes. fr, pleased to meet you MAIL FROM: <[email protected] fr> 250 [email protected] fr. . . Sender ok RCPT TO: <[email protected] edu> 250 [email protected] edu. . . Recipient ok DATA 354 Enter mail, end with ". " on a line by itself Do you like ketchup? How about pickles? . 250 Message accepted for delivery QUIT 221 hamburger. edu closing connection 2: Application Layer 10

Try SMTP interaction for yourself: r telnet servername 25 r see 220 reply from

Try SMTP interaction for yourself: r telnet servername 25 r see 220 reply from server r enter HELO, MAIL FROM, RCPT TO, DATA, QUIT commands above lets you send email without using email client (reader) 2: Application Layer 11

SMTP: final words r SMTP uses persistent connections r SMTP requires message (header &

SMTP: final words r SMTP uses persistent connections r SMTP requires message (header & body) to be in 7 bit ASCII r SMTP server uses CRLF to determine end of message Comparison with HTTP: r HTTP: pull r SMTP: push r both have ASCII command/response interaction, status codes r HTTP: each object encapsulated in its own response msg r SMTP: multiple objects sent in multipart msg 2: Application Layer 12

Mail message format SMTP: protocol for exchanging email msgs RFC 822: standard for text

Mail message format SMTP: protocol for exchanging email msgs RFC 822: standard for text message format: r header lines, e. g. , To: v From: v Subject: different from SMTP commands! v header blank line body r body v the “message”, ASCII characters only 2: Application Layer 13

Message format: multimedia extensions r MIME: multimedia mail extension, RFC 2045, 2056 r additional

Message format: multimedia extensions r MIME: multimedia mail extension, RFC 2045, 2056 r additional lines in msg header declare MIME content type MIME version method used to encode data multimedia data type, subtype, parameter declaration encoded data From: [email protected] fr To: [email protected] edu Subject: Picture of yummy crepe. MIME-Version: 1. 0 Content-Transfer-Encoding: base 64 Content-Type: image/jpeg base 64 encoded data. . . . . base 64 encoded data 2: Application Layer 14

Mail access protocols user agent SMTP sender’s mail server access protocol user agent receiver’s

Mail access protocols user agent SMTP sender’s mail server access protocol user agent receiver’s mail server r SMTP: delivery/storage to receiver’s server r Mail access protocol: retrieval from server v v v POP: Post Office Protocol [RFC 1939] • authorization (agent <-->server) and download IMAP: Internet Mail Access Protocol [RFC 1730] • more features (more complex) • manipulation of stored msgs on server HTTP: gmail, Hotmail, Yahoo! Mail, etc. 2: Application Layer 15

POP 3 protocol authorization phase r client commands: v v user: declare username pass:

POP 3 protocol authorization phase r client commands: v v user: declare username pass: password r server responses v v +OK -ERR transaction phase, client: r list: list message numbers r retr: retrieve message by number r dele: delete r quit S: C: S: +OK POP 3 server ready user bob +OK pass hungry +OK user successfully logged C: S: S: S: C: C: S: list 1 498 2 912. retr 1 <message 1 contents>. dele 1 retr 2 <message 1 contents>. dele 2 quit +OK POP 3 server signing off 2: Application Layer 16 on

POP 3 (more) and IMAP More about POP 3 r Previous example uses “download

POP 3 (more) and IMAP More about POP 3 r Previous example uses “download and delete” mode. r Bob cannot re-read email if he changes client r “Download-and-keep”: copies of messages on different clients r POP 3 is stateless across sessions IMAP r Keep all messages in one place: the server r Allows user to organize messages in folders r IMAP keeps user state across sessions: v names of folders and mappings between message IDs and folder name 2: Application Layer 17

Chapter 2: Application layer r 2. 1 Principles of network applications r 2. 2

Chapter 2: Application layer r 2. 1 Principles of network applications r 2. 2 Web and HTTP r 2. 3 FTP r 2. 4 Electronic Mail v SMTP, POP 3, IMAP r 2. 5 DNS r 2. 6 P 2 P applications r 2. 7 Socket programming with TCP r 2. 8 Socket programming with UDP r 2. 9 Building a Web server 2: Application Layer 18

DNS: Domain Name System People: many identifiers: v SSN, name, passport # Internet hosts,

DNS: Domain Name System People: many identifiers: v SSN, name, passport # Internet hosts, routers: v v IP address (32 bit) used for addressing datagrams “name”, e. g. , ww. yahoo. com - used by humans Q: map between IP addresses and name ? Domain Name System: r distributed database implemented in hierarchy of many name servers r application-layer protocol host, routers, name servers to communicate to resolve names (address/name translation) v note: core Internet function, implemented as application-layer protocol v complexity at network’s “edge” 2: Application Layer 19

DNS services r hostname to IP address translation r host aliasing v Canonical, alias

DNS services r hostname to IP address translation r host aliasing v Canonical, alias names r mail server aliasing r load distribution v replicated Web servers: set of IP addresses for one canonical name Why not centralize DNS? r single point of failure r traffic volume r distant centralized database r maintenance doesn’t scale! 2: Application Layer 20

Distributed, Hierarchical Database Root DNS Servers com DNS servers yahoo. com amazon. com DNS

Distributed, Hierarchical Database Root DNS Servers com DNS servers yahoo. com amazon. com DNS servers org DNS servers pbs. org DNS servers edu DNS servers poly. edu umass. edu DNS servers Client wants IP for www. amazon. com; 1 st approx: r client queries a root server to find com DNS server r client queries com DNS server to get amazon. com DNS server r client queries amazon. com DNS server to get IP address for www. amazon. com 2: Application Layer 21

DNS: Root name servers r contacted by local name server that can not resolve

DNS: Root name servers r contacted by local name server that can not resolve name r root name server: v v v contacts authoritative name server if name mapping not known gets mapping returns mapping to local name server a Verisign, Dulles, VA c Cogent, Herndon, VA (also LA) d U Maryland College Park, MD g US Do. D Vienna, VA h ARL Aberdeen, MD j Verisign, ( 21 locations) e NASA Mt View, CA f Internet Software C. Palo Alto, k RIPE London (also 16 other locations) i Autonomica, Stockholm (plus 28 other locations) m WIDE Tokyo (also Seoul, Paris, SF) CA (and 36 other locations) 13 root name servers worldwide b USC-ISI Marina del Rey, CA l ICANN Los Angeles, CA 2: Application Layer 22

TLD and Authoritative Servers r Top-level domain (TLD) servers: v responsible for com, org,

TLD and Authoritative Servers r Top-level domain (TLD) servers: v responsible for com, org, net, edu, etc, and all top -level country domains uk, fr, ca, jp. v Network Solutions maintains servers for com TLD v Educause for edu TLD r Authoritative DNS servers: v organization’s DNS servers, providing authoritative hostname to IP mappings for organization’s servers (e. g. , Web, mail). v can be maintained by organization or service provider 2: Application Layer 23

Local Name Server r does not strictly belong to hierarchy r each ISP (residential

Local Name Server r does not strictly belong to hierarchy r each ISP (residential ISP, company, university) has one. v also called “default name server” r when host makes DNS query, query is sent to its local DNS server v acts as proxy, forwards query into hierarchy 2: Application Layer 24

DNS name resolution example root DNS server 2 r Host at cis. poly. edu

DNS name resolution example root DNS server 2 r Host at cis. poly. edu wants IP address for gaia. cs. umass. edu iterated query: r contacted server replies with name of server to contact r “I don’t know this name, but ask this server” 3 4 TLD DNS server 5 local DNS server dns. poly. edu 1 8 requesting host 7 6 authoritative DNS server dns. cs. umass. edu cis. poly. edu gaia. cs. umass. edu 2: Application Layer 25

DNS name resolution example recursive query: root DNS server 2 r puts burden of

DNS name resolution example recursive query: root DNS server 2 r puts burden of name resolution on contacted name server r heavy load? 3 7 local DNS server dns. poly. edu 1 6 TLD DNS server 5 4 8 requesting host authoritative DNS server dns. cs. umass. edu cis. poly. edu gaia. cs. umass. edu 2: Application Layer 26

DNS: caching and updating records r once (any) name server learns mapping, it caches

DNS: caching and updating records r once (any) name server learns mapping, it caches mapping v cache entries timeout (disappear) after some time v TLD servers typically cached in local name servers • Thus root name servers not often visited r update/notify mechanisms under design by IETF v RFC 2136 v http: //www. ietf. org/html. charters/dnsind-charter. html 2: Application Layer 27

DNS records DNS: distributed db storing resource records (RR) RR format: (name, value, type,

DNS records DNS: distributed db storing resource records (RR) RR format: (name, value, type, ttl) r Type=A v name is hostname v value is IP address r Type=CNAME v name is alias name for some “canonical” (the real) name www. ibm. com is really r Type=NS servereast. backup 2. ibm. com v name is domain (e. g. v value is canonical name foo. com) v value is hostname of r Type=MX authoritative name server v value is name of mailserver for this domain associated with name 2: Application Layer 28

DNS protocol, messages DNS protocol : query and reply messages, both with same message

DNS protocol, messages DNS protocol : query and reply messages, both with same message format msg header r identification: 16 bit # for query, reply to query uses same # r flags: v query or reply v recursion desired v recursion available v reply is authoritative 2: Application Layer 29

DNS protocol, messages Name, type fields for a query RRs in response to query

DNS protocol, messages Name, type fields for a query RRs in response to query records for authoritative servers additional “helpful” info that may be used 2: Application Layer 30

Inserting records into DNS r example: new startup “Network Utopia” r register name networkuptopia.

Inserting records into DNS r example: new startup “Network Utopia” r register name networkuptopia. com at DNS registrar (e. g. , Network Solutions) v v provide names, IP addresses of authoritative name server (primary and secondary) registrar inserts two RRs into com TLD server: (networkutopia. com, dns 1. networkutopia. com, NS) (dns 1. networkutopia. com, 212. 1, A) r create authoritative server Type A record for www. networkuptopia. com; Type MX record for networkutopia. com r How do people get IP address of your Web site? 2: Application Layer 31