- Slides: 6
Key Terms and People • Holy Roman Empire- (HRE) A loose Confederation of German states (not Roman or an empire) that began when the pope gave an imperial crown to Otto of Saxony. Briefly had potential to bring back imperial rule to Europe, but was held back by conflicts between the Church and the crown (so, not too holy). • Investiture Contest- HRE Henry IV thought he could appoint bishops in his kingdom. The pope disagreed and excommunicated him. Leading to Henry begging for the popes forgiveness in order to be brought back into the church. • Hugh Capet- Created a strong centralized state in France • William the Conqueror- aka William of Normandy. Conquered England set up a strong centralized state there. • Papal State- An area in central Italy ruled directly by the Pope
Key Terms and People • Florence, Bologna, Genoa, Milan and Venice- Northern Italian city-states that grew powerful through trade. • Granada- the last Muslim stronghold in Spain/ the Iberian peninsula which was overrun by Christian armies during the Reconquista (reconquering). • Horse shoes, horse collars, animal fertilizer, field rotation- allowed for faster tilling of the land increased crop yields • Hanseatic League- trade alliance in northern Europe and centered around the Baltic and North Sea. • The Three Estates- In Medieval Europe: The Clergy, the Nobility, Everyone else. “those who prayed, those who fought, and those who labored”
Key Terms and People • Code of chivalry- code of European knights. Illustrated their loyalty to their heavenly Lord, their Earthly lord, and the honor of their lady. • Troubadours-traveling musicians • Eleanor of Aquitaine- patron of the Troubadours. Married both a king of France and a king of England. • Charters- as cities grew and merchants became rich and powerful and began to demand charters that released them from feudal control and allowed them to govern themselves. • Guilds- sort of like trade unions for craftsmen. Established uniform standards of production.
Key Terms and People • Female guilds- women could join guilds and even had all female guilds that dominated the production of clothing. • Scholasticism- the blending of classical and religious studies practiced in cathedral schools in France and Italy. • Universities- the earliest universities began in the high middle ages. • Saint Thomas Aquinas- theologen. Wrote books fusing Christianity with the writings of Aristotle. • Saints and relics- many churches in Medieval Europe venerated saints and even claimed to have relics (like a skull or piece of bone) of the saint. • St. Dominic and St. Francis founded orders of monks who preached the faith and rejected what they saw as materialism in the church.
Key Terms and People • Iceland, Greenland- Viking settlements in the North Atlantic • Vinland- Viking settlement in eastern Canada • Teutonic Knights- Warrior monks, soldiers for God. Fought in the Crusades • The Crusades- A series of wars fought to reclaim the holy land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims. The Europeans were only successful in the first one. The fourth one was weird in that it led to Italians (Who were Christian) sacking the Constantinople (the largest city in Christendom) • Pope Urban II- called on the first Crusade in 1095.