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CHAPTER 18 – BLOCK 2 3/8 -3/9/18
Bellwork: Block 2 • In what ways did the Industrial Revolution shape the character of nineteenthcentury European imperialism? • The enormous productivity of industrial technology and Europe’s growing affluence created the need for extensive raw materials and agricultural products found in other parts of the world. Europe needed to sell its own products, and foreign regions proved to be important markets. European capital sought investments abroad both for the profits that they promised and to stimulate demand for European products – in part to keep the laboring classes fully employed and thus less inclined to cause class conflict. The Industrial Revolution produced technological innovations such as the steamship, the breech-loading rifle, and the telegraph that facilitated imperialism. • What were the continuities and changes in the lives of people who lived in places that supplied Europe raw materials? • Changes include the amount of land labor employed exclusively in a new enterprise such as banana growing, diamond mining, or tapping of rubber. The economy of the exporting countries, and thus the people living in them, also became linked in new ways to the world market. However, subsistence agriculture continued. Traditional customs remained for a long time, and although people were more connected to the world economically, they were not yet culturally connected.
AP Exam Tips • You should know about factors • Make a list of natural resources the • Take notes on this important European countries received from African and Asian colonies. • Return to Chapter 14 and compare the plantation systems in the Americas to these discussed on pages 895 -896. • Massive migrations in the late nineteenth and early twentiethcenturies are a major concept in the AP course. that led to the growth of colonial cities in this era. discussion of the legacies of nineteenth-century imperialism. (Assessing Colonial Development – pg. 905). • It is important to know examples of colonial elites who received education from their colonizers, because they became leaders of independence movements in the twentieth century.
Homework Review • What does the octopus represent? • The picture depicts England’s imperialism. He is England’s version of Uncle Sam, John Bull. • Why would the octopus want Egypt next? • The octopus wants Egypt next because of the canal France built in 1869. The Suez Canal helped connect the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean via the Red Sea.
10 minutes HTS: CCOT Read pages 884 -889 and apply to the chart on your Foldout. What were the changes and continuities between first-wave and second-wave European conquests?
HTS: CCOT Review Changes Continuities Colonialism occurred in the Afro-Asian Colonialism involved military force world rather than in the Western or the threat of it, by powers that Hemisphere. had overwhelming military strength. Portugal and Spain were on the margins, France and Britain has the biggest while Germany, Italy, Belgium, the colonial networks. United States, and Japan had colonial powers. European colonial powers tried to rule Natives lost political and economic the colonies indirectly through economic sovereignty. control rather than through formal governmental structures.
HTS: Interpretation – Maps on pgs. 886 & 889 • Fill in the charts on your Foldout – midway down the front side (holes on the top) and fill in the charts. Half of you will do the left chart, the other half the right one. Colonizing Power Area “Imperialized” European Power Area “Imperialized” Japan Formosa, Korea Great Britain United States Philippines France French Indochina (Vietnam and Laos) Germany Netherlands Netherland East Indies (Indonesia) Portugal Great Britain India (Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Bangladesh) Spain Egypt, Sudan, Kenya, Somalia, Sierra Leon, Morroco, Algeria, Gold Coast Nigeria, Mauritania, Senegal, Cameroon, Northern and. German French Equatorial Southwest Africa, Southern Rhodesia, Italian Somiliand, Africa, French German East Africa, South Africa, Eritrea, Libya Somiland, French Portugese Guinea, Togo Zanzibar, Gambia, Congo, Tunisia, Angola, Mozambique Nyasaland, Belgian Congo Madagascar Bechuanaland Spanish Guinea, Spanish Morocco, Rio Del Oro Italy Belgium
Notes Slide – Please take out your notes • Colonial Encounters
HTS: Content and Sourcing Image Analysis – “The Ethiopian Exception” • Use the image projected to discuss with you elbow partner and complete a PHIA analysis.
HOMEWORK: Complete the Guided Reading on the back of your Foldout. And prepare for: Socratic Seminar is TUESDAY during BLOCK 1 Chapter 18 Test is WEDNESDAY during Block 2 This is so you have more time to do the Socratic Seminar in class because of the blocks.
COLONIAL ENCOUNTERS 1750 - 1914 Strayer: Ways of the World Chapter 18
Organize your notes • A Second Wave of European Conquests • Who had colonies? • Where was the focus? • Change – who were the newcomers? • How did it happen? • Under European Rule • Actions and reactions of the native people? • Colonial Empires With A Difference
A Second Wave of European Conquests • The British, French, Germans, Italians, Belgians, Portuguese, Russians, and Americans all had colonies. • colonial policy varied depending on time and country involved • the actions and reactions of the colonized people also shaped the colonial experience
A Second Wave of European Conquests • The period 1750– 1900 saw a second, distinct phase of European colonial conquest. • • • focused on Asia and Africa several new players (Germany, Italy, Belgium, U. S. , Japan) was not demographically catastrophic like the first phase was affected by the Industrial Revolution in general, Europeans preferred informal control (e. g. , Latin America, China, the Ottoman Empire)
A Second Wave of European Conquests • The establishment of the second-wave European empires was based on military force or on the threat of using it. original European military advantage lay in organization, drill, and command structure • over the nineteenth century, Europeans developed an enormous firepower advantage (repeating rifles and machine guns) • numerous wars of conquest: the Westerners almost always won •
A Second Wave of European Conquests • Becoming a colony happened in a variety of ways. • India and Indonesia: grew from interaction with European trading firms • most of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific islands: deliberate conquest • decentralized societies without a formal state structure were the hardest to conquer • Australia and New Zealand: more like the colonization of North America (with massive European settlement and diseases killing off most of the native population)
A Second Wave of European Conquests • Becoming a colony happened in a variety of ways. Taiwan and Korea: Japanese takeover was done European-style • United States and Russia continued to expand • Liberia: settled by freed U. S. slaves • Ethiopia and Siam (Thailand) avoided colonization skillfully • • Asian and African societies generated a wide range of responses to the European threat.
Under European Rule • European takeover was often traumatic for the colonized peoples; the loss of life and property could be devastating. • Cooperation and Rebellion • some groups and individuals cooperated willingly with their new masters employment in the armed forces • elite often kept much of their status and privileges •
Under European Rule • Cooperation and Rebellion • governments and missionaries promoted European education growth of a small class with Western education • governments relied on them increasingly over time • • periodic rebellions • • • e. g. , the Indian Rebellion of 1857– 1858, based on a series of grievances rebellion began as a mutiny among Indian troops rebel leaders advocated revival of the Mughal Empire widened India’s racial divide; the British were less tolerant of natives led the British government to assume direct control over India
Colonial Empires with a Difference • in the new colonial empires, race was a prominent point distinguishing rulers from the ruled education for colonial subjects was limited and emphasized practical matters, suitable for “primitive minds” • even the best-educated natives rarely made it into the upper ranks of the civil service • • racism was especially pronounced in areas with a large number of European settlers (e. g. , South Africa) • colonial states imposed deep changes in people’s daily lives
• colonizers were fascinated with counting and classifying Colonial Empires with a Difference their new subjects • • in India, appropriated an idealized caste system in Africa, identified or invented distinct “tribes” • colonial policies contradicted European core values and practices at home colonies were essentially dictatorships colonies were the antithesis of “national independence” racial classifications were against Christian and Enlightenment ideas of human equality • many colonizers were against spreading “modernization” to the colonies • in time, the visible contradictions in European behavior helped undermine the foundations of colonial rule • • •
CCOT practice • How did colonization change in this time period? • How did it stay the same? • Write a thesis statement