- Slides: 39
Chapter 17 Section 2 The Northern Renaissance
Renaissance Art in Northern Europe n n Should not be considered an appendage to Italian art. But, Italian influence was strong. n Painting in OIL, developed in Flanders, was widely adopted in Italy.
n The differences between the two cultures: n n n Italy change was inspired by humanism with its emphasis on the revival of the values of classical antiquity. N. Europe change was driven by religious reform, the return to Christian values, and the revolt against the authority of the Church. More princes & kings were patrons of artists.
Characteristics of Northern Renaissance Art n n n The continuation of late medieval attention to details. Tendency toward realism & naturalism [less emphasis on the “classical ideal”]. Interest in landscapes. More emphasis on middle-class and peasant life. Details of domestic interiors. Great skill in portraiture.
The Northern Renaissance Begins n n n By the late 1400 s, Renaissance ideas had spread to Northern Europe Especially: England, France, Germany, and Flanders (now part of France and the Netherlands). End of Hundred Years War in 1453 sparks growth in Flanders
The Northern Renaissance Begins n n England France were unified under strong monarchs Francis I of France invited Leonardo da Vinci to retire in France Fontainebleau castle became a showcase for Renaissance artists were especially interested in realism
The School of Fontainebleau It revolved around the artists at Francis I’s Palace at Fontainebleau. , A group of artists that decorated the Royal Palace between the 1530 s and the 1560 s. , It was an offshoot of the Mannerist School of Art begun in Italy at the end of the High Renaissance. , characterized by a refined elegance, with crowded figural compositions in which painting and elaborate stucco work were closely integrated. Their work incorporated allegory in accordance with the courtly liking for symbolism.
The School of Fontainebleau , , Gallery [right] by Rosso Fiorentino & Francesco Primaticcio 1528 -1537
Artistic Ideas Spread n n War in Italy resulted in artists moving to Northern Europe for safer lifestyle N. European artists who studied in Italy carried Renaissance ideas back to their homelands
German Painters n 1494 -Albrecht Dürer studied in Italy n n n woodcuts and engravings emphasis upon realism Hans Holbein the Younger n n n portraits almost photographic in detail Emigrated to England Painted portraits of King Henry VIII
Albrecht Dürer (1471 -1528) n n The greatest of German artists. A scholar as well as an artist. His patron was the Emperor Maximilian I. Also a scientist n n n Wrote books on geometry, fortifications, and human proportions. Self-conscious individualism of the Renaissance is seen in his portraits. Self-Portrait at 26, 1498.
Dürer – Self-Portrait in Fur-Collared Robe, 1500
Durer – The Triumphal Arch, 15151517
The Triumphal Arch, details
The Triumphal Arch, details
Hans Holbein, the Younger (14971543) n n One of the great German artists who did most of his work in England. While in Basel, he befriended Erasmus. n Erasmus Writing, 1523 Henry VIII was his patron from 1536. Great portraitist noted for: n Objectivity & detachment. n Doesn’t conceal the weaknesses of his subjects.
Artist to the Tudors Henry VIII (left), 1540 and the future Edward VI (above), 1543.
Holbein’s, The Ambassadors, 1533 A Skull
Flemish Painters n n Flanders-the artistic center of northern Europe Jan van Eyck n n Used oil-based paints layers of paint created a variety of subtle colors in clothing and jewels Pieter Bruegel the Elder n n skillful in portraying large numbers of people everyday peasant life
Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife (Wedding Portrait) Jan Van Eyck 1434
Jan van Eyck - Giovanni Arnolfini & His Wife (details)
Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525 -1569) n n n One of the greatest artistic geniuses of his age. Worked in Antwerp and then moved to Brussels. In touch with a circle of Erasmian humanists. Was deeply concerned with human vice and follies. A master of landscapes; not a portraitist. n n People in his works often have round, blank, heavy faces. They are expressionless, mindless, and sometimes malicious. They are types, rather than individuals. Their purpose is to convey a message.
Bruegel’s, Tower of Babel, 1563
Bruegel’s, Mad Meg, 1562
Bruegel’s, The Beggars, 1568
Bruegel’s, Parable of the Blind Leading the Blind, 1568
Bruegel’s, Niederlandisch Proverbs, 1559
Northern Writers Try to Reform Society n n n Italian humanists were very interested in reviving classical languages and classical texts Northern humanists were critical of the failure of the Church to inspire people to live a Christian life Christian humanism focused on the reform of society
Christian Humanists n Desiderius Erasmus wrote The Praise of Folly n n in order to improve society, all people should study the Bible Thomas More wrote Utopia n n an imaginary land where greed, corruption, and war have been weeded out More wrote in Latin, but later translated when popular
Women’s Reforms n n formal schooling - usually sent only their sons Christine de Pizan n n First woman to earn a living as a writer Wrote in French Men frequently made objections to educating women She questioned different treatment of boys and girls
Sir Thomas More, Lord Chancellor of England
The Elizabethan Age n n Renaissance spread to England in the mid-1500 s known as the Elizabethan Age, after Queen Elizabeth I Well-rounded education She supported the development of English art and literature
William Shakespeare n n People regard him as the greatest playwright of all time He revealed the souls of men and women through scenes of dramatic conflict n n Tragedies: Macbeth, Hamlet, Othello, Romeo and Juliet, and King Lear Comedies: A Midsummer Night’s Dream and The Taming of the Shrew
Printing Spreads Renaissance Ideas n Around 1045, Bi Sheng of China invented movable type n n most Chinese printers found movable type impractical due to large number of characters Gutenberg Improves the Printing Process 13 th century - blockprinted items reached Europe from China. Too slow and laborious for demand
Johann Gutenberg improved process Gutenberg Bible first full-sized book printed with movable type
The Legacy of the Renaissance n n n Changes in the Arts • Art drew on techniques and styles of classical Greece and Rome. • Paintings and sculptures portrayed individuals and nature in more realistic and lifelike ways. • Artists created works that were secular as well as those that were religious. • Writers began to use vernacular languages to express their ideas. • The arts praised individual achievement. n n n n n Changes in Society • Printing changed society by making more information available and inexpensive enough for society at large. • A greater availability of books prompted an increased desire for learning and a rise in literacy throughout Europe. • Published accounts of new discoveries, maps, and charts led to further discoveries in a variety of fields. • Published legal proceedings made the laws clear so that people were more likely to understand their rights. • Christian humanists’ attempts to reform society changed views about how life should be lived. • People began to question political structures and religious practices