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Chapter 16 Strength and Flexibility
Strength & Flexibility are structural constraints Movement is enhanced when S & F and maximized or improved Movement is restricted or decreased in degree as S & F decline �Muscle Strength Depends on � 1) ______ of fibers activated � 2)_____ of the muscle fiber i. e. ______ of the fibers � 3)Degree of _____ in activating the fibers (i. e. _______ system coordination with the muscles
Length and Cross-sectional area (thickness) grow as one matures. Types of Muscle Contractions: • Isontonic • Isometric • Isokinetic. STRENGTH TESTING 1 RM isotonic (not for children) 1. Force Velocity Curve – isokinetic device 2. Dynamomter- measures ______ strength 3. Functional Tests based on bodyweight- measures relative strength Absolute Strength vs Relative Strength Sample Tests 1. 2. 3. 4.
Development/Maturation & Strength Pre-adolescence Strength _____ as children grow older due to the effects of hormones Boys and Girls have similar strength unit ~ 13 yrs. of age Adolescence Boys _______ muscle mass due to an increase in androgens (sex hormones) Adult females produce 60 -80% of the force of an adult male (on average) The differences are more pronounced in the _____ & _____ then the ____ & ______ Adulthood Initial increase in strength from resistance training is due to improve ______ subsequent gains (six weeks) are due to increases in muscle fiber _____. Strength through 20 s, 30 s, etc.
Strength Training Pre-pubescence • Increase in strength but no increase in muscle size • Strength increase due to increased coordinated activation of _____ fibers (______ coordination increases) • Pre-pubescent weight training is discouraged due to potential damage to the ____ plate and subsequent damage to a child’s _____. Guidelines for PPWT include: 1. 2. 3. ___ reps, ____ weight 4. Emphasis on ______ 5. ______weight exercises are recommended but still need to be monitored
Adolescence- Hypertrophy accompanies regular strength training (includes m&f) Training should be monitored and plyometrics, olympic and explosive lifts , are to used with caution. No RMs, use ____ RMs instead. Adulthood- Muscle size increases but takes longer as one ages. As age, lighter weights are recommended as is more rest between workouts to decrease the risk of injury and to allow more time for adaption and recovery.