CHAPTER 15 Immigrants and Urbanization Overview Time Lines

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CHAPTER 15 Immigrants and Urbanization Overview Time Lines SECTION 1 The New Immigrants SECTION

CHAPTER 15 Immigrants and Urbanization Overview Time Lines SECTION 1 The New Immigrants SECTION 2 The Problems of Urbanization SECTION 3 The Emergence of the Political Machine Chapter Assessment Transparencies

CHAPTER 15 Immigrants and Urbanization “We cannot all live in the city, yet nearly

CHAPTER 15 Immigrants and Urbanization “We cannot all live in the city, yet nearly all seem determined to do so. ” Horace Greeley, writer THEMES IN CHAPTER 15 Immigration and Migration Cultural Diversity The American Dream HOME

CHAPTER 15 Immigrants and Urbanization “We cannot all live in the city, yet nearly

CHAPTER 15 Immigrants and Urbanization “We cannot all live in the city, yet nearly all seem determined to do so. ” Horace Greeley, writer What do you know? • Why do you think “immigrants” and “urbanization” are linked together in the title of this chapter? Read the quote above and answer the following: • What does Horace Greeley’s statement mean? • What problems might new immigrants face? HOME

CHAPTER 15 Time Line The United States 1871 Boss Tweed is indicted for fraud

CHAPTER 15 Time Line The United States 1871 Boss Tweed is indicted for fraud and forgery. 1886 Statue of Liberty is dedicated. 1890 Immigration soars for Europeans. 1897 First electric subway is opened in Boston. 1898 Hawaii is annexed by United States. 1900 Tenements abound in New York City. 1903 Wright Brothers make first successful airplane flight. HOME

CHAPTER 15 Time Line The World 1871 Otto von Bismarck unifies the new German

CHAPTER 15 Time Line The World 1871 Otto von Bismarck unifies the new German Empire. 1876 Porfirio Díaz seizes power in Mexico. 1886 Gold is discovered in South Africa. 1895 X-rays are discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen. 1901 Commonwealth of Australia is created. 1912 Qing dynasty in China is overthrown. 1914 Panama Canal opens. HOME

SECTION 1 The New Immigrants Learn About why people emigrate and the challenges they

SECTION 1 The New Immigrants Learn About why people emigrate and the challenges they face. To Understand the impact of immigration on the United States in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries. HOME

SECTION 1 The New Immigrants Key Idea New immigrants from southern and eastern Europe,

SECTION 1 The New Immigrants Key Idea New immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, Asia, the Caribbean, and Mexico face culture shock and prejudice–as well as the opportunity for a better life–in the United States. HOME

The New Immigrants n Why come to the United States? ¨ Escaped famine, land

The New Immigrants n Why come to the United States? ¨ Escaped famine, land shortages, religious or political persecution, rising population, gain money than return back to homeland n Europeans: 1870 -1920 20 million Europeans ¨ Before 1890 Western and Northern Europe ¨ 1890 -1920 Southern and Eastern Europe n Religious persecution ¨ Pogroms: organized attacks encouraged by local authorities § Russian Jews

Chinese and Japanese n Chinese on West Coast ¨ 1851 -1883 300, 000 Immigrants

Chinese and Japanese n Chinese on West Coast ¨ 1851 -1883 300, 000 Immigrants b/c of California Gold Rush and Transcontinental Railroad n 1884 Japanese Government allowed Hawaiian planters to hire Japanese workers n The West Indies and Mexico ¨ Came from Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, other islands n 700, 000 Mexicans (7% of population) came from 1910 -1930 n Chart on Page 461

n Life in the New Land Difficult Journey ¨ 1 ¨ 3 n Week

n Life in the New Land Difficult Journey ¨ 1 ¨ 3 n Week from Europe Weeks from Asia Ellis Island (New York Harbor): main immigration station in the United States from 1892 to 1924 ¨ 17 n million immigrants Angel Island (San Francisco Bay) 50, 000 Chinese immigrants ¨ Endured condition n harsh questioning and a long detention in filthy Immigrants Deal With Challenges in Society ¨ Place to live, job, language, culture, discrimination from natives

Immigration Restrictions n Melting Pot: a mixture of people of different cultures and races

Immigration Restrictions n Melting Pot: a mixture of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs ¨ Many new immigrants did not want to give up their cultural identities n Nativism: favoritism toward native-born Americans ¨ Wanted immigration restrictions ¨ 1897 Congress passed a bill requiring immigrants to pass a literacy test n President Wilson vetoed the bill

Anti-Asian Sentiment n Chinese Exclusion Act: 1882 banned all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants,

Anti-Asian Sentiment n Chinese Exclusion Act: 1882 banned all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials for 10 years ¨ 1892 Congress extended Act for another 10 years ¨ 1902 Chinese immigration was restricted indefinitely ¨ 1943 Law finally repealed n Gentlemen's Agreement: 1907 -1908 Japan’s government and President Theodore Roosevelt agreed to limit emigration of unskilled workers to the U. S. in exchange for the repeal of the San Francisco segregation order in schools

SECTION 1 The New Immigrants HOME Section 1 Assessment SUMMARIZING What were some of

SECTION 1 The New Immigrants HOME Section 1 Assessment SUMMARIZING What were some of the causes for the effects listed below? Causes Effect 1. Poverty 2. Religious persecution 3. Shortage of agricultural land 4. Lack of industrial jobs 5. Spirit of reform Immigrants leave their home countries 1. New, unfamiliar culture 2. Harsh interrogation and detention 3. Prejudice and discrimination 4. Problems of urban life 5. Culture shock Immigrants face hardships in the United States 1. Growing immigration 2. Suspicion and fear of differences 3. Religious intolerance 4. Racial prejudice 5. Economic depression Some nativists want to restrict immigration

SECTION 1 The New Immigrants Section 1 Assessment FORMING OPINIONS Which group of immigrants

SECTION 1 The New Immigrants Section 1 Assessment FORMING OPINIONS Which group of immigrants faced the greatest challenges settling in the United States? Why? THINK ABOUT • the difficulties of travel to the United States • where the immigrants settled • the opportunities open to each immigrant group HOME

SECTION 1 The New Immigrants Section 1 Assessment SYNTHESIZING What arguments can you make

SECTION 1 The New Immigrants Section 1 Assessment SYNTHESIZING What arguments can you make against nativism and antiimmigrant feeling? THINK ABOUT • the personal qualities of immigrants • the reasons for anti-immigrant feeling • the contributions of immigrants to the United States HOME

SECTION 2 The Problems of Urbanization HOME Learn About the rapid growth of American

SECTION 2 The Problems of Urbanization HOME Learn About the rapid growth of American cities in the late 1800 s and early 1900 s. To Understand the promise and problems of urbanization.

SECTION 2 The Problems of Urbanization Key Idea The rapid growth of cities creates

SECTION 2 The Problems of Urbanization Key Idea The rapid growth of cities creates many problems: how to provide adequate housing, transportation, water, and sanitation, and how to fight fire and crime. The search for solutions begins. HOME

Urban Opportunities n Urbanization: Growth of Cities (Chart Page 469) ¨ Urban Population 10

Urban Opportunities n Urbanization: Growth of Cities (Chart Page 469) ¨ Urban Population 10 million to 54 million from 1870 to 1920 n Americanization movement: designed to assimilate people of wide-ranging cultures into the dominate culture ¨ Not very affective as people wanted to keep their cultures ¨ Farmers go to Cities n Rapid improvements in farming (Mc. Cormick reaper & steel plow) good for some farmers bad for others as it meant fewer laborers were needed n African American farmers hit hardest ¨ Competition for jobs increased racial tensions

Urban Problems n 1. Housing Tenements: overcrowded and unsanitary multifamily urban dwellings ¨ Lack

Urban Problems n 1. Housing Tenements: overcrowded and unsanitary multifamily urban dwellings ¨ Lack of transportation forced people to live near jobs ¨ n 2. Transportation Mass Transit: transportation systems designed to move large numbers of people along fixed routes, enabled workers to go to and from jobs more easily ¨ Street cars San Francisco 1873 & Subways Boston 1897 n Cities struggled to keep up transit systems to meet demand of expanding populations ¨ n 3. Water ¨ Many city residents had inadequate or no water at all

Urban Problems Cont… n 4. Sanitation ¨ Horse manure piled up on streets, sewage

Urban Problems Cont… n 4. Sanitation ¨ Horse manure piled up on streets, sewage flowed through open gutters, and factories spewed foul smoke into the air ¨ By 1900 cities had developed sewer lines and created sanitation departments n 5. Crime ¨ City Law Enforcement was too small to have an impact on crime n 6. Fire ¨ Limited water supply, buildings made of wood, and the use of candles and kerosene heaters meant lots of major fires in cities ¨ Quote and Chart on Page 471

Reformers Mobilize n Social Gospel Movement: preached salvation through service to the poor ¨

Reformers Mobilize n Social Gospel Movement: preached salvation through service to the poor ¨ Settlement Houses: community centers in slum neighborhoods that provided assistance to people in the area n Sent nurses out to help ¨ Jane Addams: one of the most influential members of the settlement house movement-founded Chicago’s Hull House ¨ Janie Porter Barrett founded the first settlement house for African Americans in Virginia

SECTION 2 The Problems of Urbanization HOME Section 2 Assessment SUMMARIZING What were some

SECTION 2 The Problems of Urbanization HOME Section 2 Assessment SUMMARIZING What were some attempts to solve certain urban problems? Row houses ou Sanitation departments H g n si Poor Sanitation e New streetcar lines at I de a n u eq e at u q tenements ad a Tr Sewer lines In n io t ta r po Subways s n SOLUTIONS TO URBAN PROBLEMS

SECTION 2 The Problems of Urbanization Section 2 Assessment RECOGNIZING EFFECTS What effects did

SECTION 2 The Problems of Urbanization Section 2 Assessment RECOGNIZING EFFECTS What effects did the migration from rural areas to the cities in the late 19 th century have on urban society? THINK ABOUT • the reasons people moved to cities • the problems caused by rapid urban growth • the impact of urban growth on rural areas HOME

SECTION 2 The Problems of Urbanization Section 2 Assessment EVALUATING Do you think the

SECTION 2 The Problems of Urbanization Section 2 Assessment EVALUATING Do you think the Social Gospel reformers and those who started settlement houses had realistic goals? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT • the motives of the reformers • the types of reforms they supported • the impact of their reforms HOME

SECTION 3 Politics in the Gilded Age Learn About the national effects of political

SECTION 3 Politics in the Gilded Age Learn About the national effects of political corruption in the late 19 th century. To Understand why Americans wanted reform. HOME

SECTION 3 Politics in the Gilded Age Key Idea Local and national political corruption

SECTION 3 Politics in the Gilded Age Key Idea Local and national political corruption during the Gilded Age leads to a call for reform. http: //urbanap 0910. wikispaces. com/Political+Reform HOME

The Emergence of Political Machines n Political Machine: organized group that controlled activities in

The Emergence of Political Machines n Political Machine: organized group that controlled activities in a city ¨ Organized like a pyramid n Base: Precinct Captains n Middle: Ward Bosses n Top: City Boss ¨ Immigrants supported political machines because they provided solutions to their most pressing needs n Bosses were responsible for building parks, sewer systems, water systems, give money to schools, and hospitals, and provided support for businesses ¨ Political elected Machines needed the immigrants votes to get

Municipal Graft and Scandal n Election fraud used to get more votes ¨ Fake

Municipal Graft and Scandal n Election fraud used to get more votes ¨ Fake n Names Graft: the illegal use of political influence for personal gain ¨ Kickbacks n (illegal payments): portion of the earnings on a project went back to the political machine ¨ Until 1890 police forces were hired and fired by political bosses Boss Tweed: Leader of the Tweed Ring-group of corrupt politicians in New York City ¨ Construction of New York County Courthouse n Cost taxpayers 13 million Actual construction costs 3 million ¨ Tweed was arrested on 120 counts of fraud n Escaped after 2 nd arrest and was final caught in Spain

Civil Service Replaces Patronage n n n Patronage: Giving of government jobs to people

Civil Service Replaces Patronage n n n Patronage: Giving of government jobs to people who had helped a candidate get elected (also known as spoils system) Civil Service: jobs should go to the most qualified person regardless of political views Rutherford B. Hayes: Elected President in 1876 ¨ Put reform in his own hands by firing two top officials in New York City-enraged his Republican Party especially Stalwarts: people opposed of changing the spoils system n Does not run for reelection in 1880

President Garfield Assassinated n Garfield won 1880 Presidential Election ¨ 1881 assassinated in a

President Garfield Assassinated n Garfield won 1880 Presidential Election ¨ 1881 assassinated in a Washington, D. C. train station by a self proclaimed Stalwart who wanted the Vice President Chester Arthur to be in charge n Arthur was put in Vice Presidency by Stalwarts however he turned reformer once President ¨ Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883: Authorized a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to federal jobs through a merit system based on candidates’ performance on an examination

n n Business Buys Influence With Patronage out politicians turned to wealthy business owners

n n Business Buys Influence With Patronage out politicians turned to wealthy business owners for their campaign contributions Grover Cleveland: Won 1884 Presidential Election ¨ First win for Democrats in 28 years ¨ Tried to lower Tariffs but Congress refused to support him n Benjamin Harrison: Elected President in 1888 ¨ Grandson of President William Henry Harrison ¨ Mc. Kinley Tariff Act: raised tariffs on manufactured goods to their highest level ever n In 1892 Cleveland becomes first and only President to serve two non-consecutive terms ¨ Again n unsuccessful in lowering Tariffs 1896 William Mc. Kinley elected President and raises tariffs again

SECTION 3 Politics in the Gilded Age HOME Section 3 Assessment SUMMARIZING List the

SECTION 3 Politics in the Gilded Age HOME Section 3 Assessment SUMMARIZING List the positions held by the following leaders and list their stands on civil service reform or tariffs. Leader Position Rutherford B. Hayes President (1877 -1881) Supported civil service reform Roscoe Conkling New York Senator Against civil service reform Chester A. Arthur President (1881 -1885) Supported Pendleton Act Grover Cleveland President (1885 -1889, 1893 -1897) Supported lower tariffs Benjamin Harrison President (1889 -1893) Stand Supported higher tariffs

SECTION 3 Politics in the Gilded Age Section 3 Assessment HYPOTHESIZING How do you

SECTION 3 Politics in the Gilded Age Section 3 Assessment HYPOTHESIZING How do you think politics in the United States would have been different if the Pendleton Act had not been passed? THINK ABOUT • the act’s impact on federal workers • the act’s impact on political fundraising • conflicts within the Republican party at the time HOME

SECTION 3 Politics in the Gilded Age Section 33 Assessment FORMING AN OPINION If

SECTION 3 Politics in the Gilded Age Section 33 Assessment FORMING AN OPINION If you had been running for Congress in 1892, would you have supported a reduction in tariffs? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT • the needs of voters in your state • the economic impact of reducing tariffs • the social consequences of a reduction in tariffs HOME

Chapter 15 Assessment 1. What trends or events in other countries prompted people to

Chapter 15 Assessment 1. What trends or events in other countries prompted people to move to the United States in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries? 2. What difficulties did many of these new immigrants face? 3. Why did cities in the United States grow rapidly in the decades following the Civil War? 4. What problems did this rapid growth pose for cities? 5. What solutions to urban problems did supporters of the Social Gospel propose? HOME

Chapter 15 Assessment 6. Why did machine politics become common in big cities in

Chapter 15 Assessment 6. Why did machine politics become common in big cities in the late 19 th century? 7. How was Boss Tweed similar to and different from other big city bosses? 8. What government problems arose as a result of the spoils system? 9. What effects did the Pendleton Act have on the running of the federal government? 10. Summarize the views of Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison on tariffs. HOME