CHAPTER 15 Fire Hose Appliances and Nozzles Knowledge
- Slides: 94
CHAPTER 15 Fire Hose, Appliances, and Nozzles
Knowledge Objectives • List the two types of fire hose. • Describe the various sizes of fire hose and how they are used. • Describe the characteristics of attack hose. • Explain how fire hose is constructed. • Describe the characteristics of single-jacket hose. • Describe the characteristics of multiple-jacket hose.
Knowledge Objectives • Describe the characteristics of rubber-covered hose. • Describe the characteristics of couplings. • List the common types of couplings. • Describe supply hose. • Describe the two types of suction hose. • List the common types of hose damage. • Describe how to clean and maintain hose.
Knowledge Objectives • Describe the importance of a hose inspection. • List the common types of hose rolls used to organize supply hose. • List the common hose appliances used in conjunction with fire hose. • Describe the characteristics of wyes. • Describe the characteristics of water thieves. • Describe the characteristics of Siamese connections.
Knowledge Objectives • Describe the characteristics of adaptors and reducers. • Describe the characteristics of hose jackets. • Describe the characteristics of hose rollers. • Describe the characteristics of hose bridges. • Describe the characteristics of hose clamps. • Describe the types of valves used to control water in pipes or hose lines.
Knowledge Objectives • Describe the different types of master stream appliances. • Discuss the differences between smooth-bore nozzles and fog-stream nozzles.
Skills Objectives • Replace the swivel gasket on a fire hose. • Perform the one-fire-fighter foot-tilt method of coupling a fire hose. • Perform the two-fire-fighter method of coupling a fire hose. • Perform the one-fire-fighter knee-press method of uncoupling a fire hose. • Perform the two-fire-fighter stiff-arm method of uncoupling a fire hose. • Uncouple a hose with a spanner wrench. • Clean and maintain hose. • Mark a defective hose.
Skills Objectives • • • Perform a straight hose roll. Perform a single-doughnut hose roll. Perform a twin-doughnut hose roll. Perform a self-locking twin-doughnut hose roll. Use a hose jacket. Open and close nozzles slowly to prevent water hammer. • Operate a smooth-bore nozzle. • Operate a fog-stream nozzle.
Fire Hose • Two main purposes – Supply hoses (supply lines) • Deliver water to attack engine from pressurized source – Attack hoses (attack lines) • Discharge water from attack engine onto fire
Sizes of Hose • Range from ¾ in. to 6 in. (19 mm to 152 mm) • Nominal hose size – Inside diameter of hose filled with water © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
1½-Inch (38 -mm) and 1¾-Inch (44 -mm) Attack Hose • Primary attack hose for most fires • Can be operated by one fire fighter • Often stored on fire apparatus as preconnected attack line • Main difference between them is amount of water that can flow through
Booster Hose • Also known as booster line • 1 -in. (25 -mm) diameter • Carried on hose reel that holds 150 ft or 200 ft (45 m or 61 m) of hard rubber hose • Rigid and lightweight • Limited flow • Usually used for small outdoor fires
Forestry Fire Hose • Lightweight, collapsible hose • ¾-in. (19 -mm), 1 -in. (25 -mm), or 1½-inch (38 mm) diameter • Used to fight wildland ground cover fires • Offers better maneuverability through brush and trees
2½-Inch (65 -mm) to 3 -Inch (76 -mm) Hose • Can be used as attack or supply hose • Takes at least two fire fighters to control • 3 -in. (76 -mm) hose – Often used as supply hose – Used to deliver water to portable monitors, deck guns, and aerial master stream appliances when used as attack hose • Usually come in 50 -ft (15 -m) lengths
Large-Diameter Hose • Sizes – 4 in. (100 mm) – 5 in. (127 mm) – 6 in. (152 mm) • Standard lengths – 50 ft (15 m) – 100 ft (30 m) • Water flows – Range from 350 to 1500 gpm (1325 to 5678 L/min)
Hose Construction • Inner waterproof liner surrounded by one or two outer layers (jackets) • May be single-jacket or multiple-jacket • Rubber-covered hose – Double-jacket hose with rubber-like compound on jacket • Stored flat and fold easily © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Hose Construction • Hose liner – Inner part or layer of hose – Prevents water from leaking – Provides smooth inside surface for water flow – Usually made of synthetic rubber compound or thin flexible membrane material © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Hose Couplings • Connect length of hose to – Another length of hose – Fire hydrant – Inlet or outlet connection on engine – Nozzles, fittings, and appliances • Permanently attached to ends of hose • Most common types – Threaded – Storz-type (nonthreaded)
Threaded Hose Couplings • Used on most hose up to 3 in. (76 mm) • Male coupling – Threads on outside – Single piece • Female coupling – Threads on inside – Two pieces • Reducer or adaptor – Can connect hoses of different sizes or threads © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Threaded Hose Couplings • Standardized threads commonly used by most departments • Proper thread alignment essential for secure couplings • Prone to cross threading • Spanner wrench – Used to couple and uncouple hose couplings © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Threaded Hose Couplings • Lugs – Extensions or indentations that provide leverage for coupling and uncoupling – Types • Pin lugs • Rocker lugs or rocker pins • Recessed lugs © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Threaded Hose Couplings • Higbee indicator – Notch on lug that indicates position of first thread • Rubber swivel gasket – O-shaped piece of rubber – Sits inside swivel section of female coupling – Forms seal to prevent leaks – Can deteriorate over time © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Storz-Type (Nonthreaded) Hose Couplings • Couplings same on both ends • Can attach to any other coupling of same diameter • Most often used on large-diameter hose (LDH) • Connected by – Mating two couplings face-to-face – Turning them clockwise to lock © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Storz-Type (Nonthreaded) Hose Couplings • Adaptors connect Storz-type couplings to – Fire hydrants – Threaded couplings – Couplings of different sizes • Techniques used for coupling and uncoupling – One-fire fighter foot-tilt method – Two-fire fighter method • Never disconnect charged hose lines while water is under pressure.
Supply Hose • Deliver water to attack engine from pressurized source • Carry larger volumes of water at lower pressures than attack hose • Common sizes – – – 2½ in. (65 mm) 3 in. (76 mm) 4 in. (100 mm) 5 in. (127 mm) 6 in. (152 mm)
Supply Hose • Choice of diameter based on – Fire department preferences and operating requirements – Amount of water needed to supply attack engine – Distance from source to attack engine – Pressure available at source
Supply Hose • With threaded couplings, hose can be laid out – From fire hydrant or supply engine to fire • Forward hose lay – From fire to hydrant or supply engine • Reverse hose lay • Engines may be loaded with two beds of hose. – Can easily drop supply hose in either direction
Supply Hose • 2½-in. (65 -mm) hose – May be used as supply hose or attack hose • LDH – Much more efficient for moving larger volumes of water over longer distances • Testing – Must test annually at pressure of at least 200 psi (1379 kilopascals [k. Pa]) or pressure not to exceed service test pressure marked on hose
Suction Hose • Supplies water to suction (intake) side of fire pump • Two types – Soft sleeve hose • Transports water from pressurized source to suction side of fire pump – Hard suction hose • Drafts water from static water source
Soft Sleeve Hose • Short section of large-diameter supply hose • Provides water from larger steamer outlet to suction side of fire pump • Ranges from 2½ in. (65 mm) to 6 in. (152 mm) • May have Storz or threaded couplings • Between 10 ft (3 m) and 25 ft (7. 6 m) in length © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Hard Suction Hose • Short section of rigid hose that drafts water from static source or carries water from fire hydrant to pumper • 10 -ft. (3 -m) or 20 -ft (6 -m) sections • Diameter up to 6 in. (152 mm) • Made of rubber or plastic • Long handles on female couplings for tightening hose © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Attack Hose • Designed for fire suppression • Common diameters – 1½-in. (38 -mm) or 1¾-in. (44 -mm) lines – 1 -in. (25 -mm) booster lines – 1 -in. (25 -mm) or 1½-in. (38 mm) forestry fire hose • Each section usually 50 ft (15 m) long © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Attack Hose • Must be tough, flexible, and lightweight • Needs to be able to withstand – High pressure and high temperatures – Sharp surfaces – Abrasion – Other potentially damaging conditions • Must be tested annually • Can be multiple-jacket or rubber-covered construction
Hose Care, Maintenance, and Inspection • Should regularly inspect and test fire hose – NFPA 1962, Standard for the Care, Use, Inspection, Service Testing, and Replacement of Fire Hose, Couplings, Nozzles, and Fire Hose Appliances • Also check swivel gaskets in female couplings – Replace when worn or damaged.
Causes and Prevention of Hose Damage • Mechanical damage – Caused by • Dragging hose over rough or sharp objects • Running over hose with vehicle • Heat and cold – Fire and embers can burn hose. – Frozen hose can rupture. • Keep water flowing through hose in low temperatures. • Do not bend frozen hose; allow it to thaw out.
Causes and Prevention of Hose Damage • Chemicals – Many can damage fire hose. – Remove chemicals from hose as soon as possible. – Wash hose with approved detergent. • Mildew – Fungal growth on fabrics – Can cause hose to rot – Fibers in rubber-covered hose are protected.
Cleaning and Maintaining Hose • Important to clean and maintain fire hose • General guidelines – Prevent hose from contact with petroleum and abrasive substances. – Clean hose as soon as possible after it becomes dirty. – Follow manufacturer’s recommendations.
Cleaning and Maintaining Hose • Some fire departments use special equipment to wash and dry fire hose. © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman. Courtesy of Circul-Air Corp.
Cleaning and Maintaining Hose • Hose-drying methods – Angled rack with slats – Hose towers – Heated hose-drying cabinet • Follow manufacturer’s directions for washing and drying equipment. • Hose couplings may require special attention. Courtesy of Circul-Air Corp.
Hose Inspections • Perform visual inspections – At least quarterly – After each use • Lengths of hose with defects – Remove from service and tag • Hose unused for 30 days – Unpack, inspect, clean, and reload
Hose Testing and Records • Hose should be tested at least annually. – NFPA 1962, Standard for the Care, Use, Inspection, Service Testing, and Replacement of Fire Hose, Couplings, Nozzles, and Fire Hose Appliances • Hose record – Written history of each length of hose – Contains • Hose size and type • Manufacturer and date of manufacture • Date of purchase • Testing dates
Straight or Storage Hose Roll • Uses – General handling – Transportation – Rack storage • Male coupling at center of roll • Female coupling on outside of roll © Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Single-Doughnut Hose Roll • Used when hose will be put into use directly from rolled state • Both couplings on outside of roll • Can be connected and extended by one fire fighter © Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Twin-Doughnut Hose Roll • Used primarily to make small compact roll for easy carrying © Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Self-Locking Twin-Doughnut Hose Roll • Similar to twin-doughnut hose roll, but forms its own carry loop © Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Hose Appliances • Devices used in conjunction with fire hose to deliver water • Various types are used – Mainly with supply hose – Mainly with attack hose – With both supply and attack hose
Wye • Splits one hose into two or more lines • One female connection and two or more male connections • Primarily used on attack hose • Gated wye – Two quarter-turn ball valves – Can add second hose without shutting down first hose Courtesy of Akron Brass Company
Water Thief • Similar to gated wye, but includes: – 2½-in. (65 -mm) inlet – 2½-in. (65 -mm) outlet – Two 1½-in. (38 -mm) outlets • Supplies many hose from one source • Primarily used on attack hose Courtesy of Akron Brass Company
Siamese Connection • Combines two or more hose lines into one • Two female inlets and one male outlet • May be equipped with – Quarter-turn ball valves – Clapper valves • Sometimes used on engine inlet • Commonly installed on Fire Department Connections (FDCs) Courtesy of Akron Brass Company
Adaptors • Safely connect fire hose couplings with – Couplings of different sizes, threads, or mating surfaces – Other appliances • Double-female adaptor – Joins two male hose couplings • Double-male adaptor – Joins two female hose couplings © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Reducers • Type of adaptor that attaches smaller-diameter hose to larger-diameter hose • Larger end usually female • Smaller end usually male © 2003, Berta A. Daniels
Hose Jacket • Placed over leaking section of hose to stop leak • Provides temporary fix • Split metal cylinder fits tightly over outside of hose • Fastener clamps cylinder • Gaskets prevent leakage © 2003, Berta A. Daniels
Hose Roller • Prevents chafing or kinking at a sharp edge when hose is being hoisted • Sometimes called a hose hoist • Can also be used to protect ropes © 2003, Berta A. Daniels
Hose Bridge • Protects hose when vehicles are driven over it • Rubber hose bridge – Placed under hose – Hose is placed into trough • Metal hose bridge – Placed over hose – Hose is placed in center of bridge
Hose Clamp • Temporarily stops flow of water in hose • Often applied to supply hose so hydrant can be opened before line is hooked up • May use – Screw mechanism – Long-handled lever – Hydraulic power © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Valves • Control flow of water in pipe or hose • Open and close slowly to prevent water hammer • Ball valve – Used on nozzles, gated wyes, and engine discharge gates – Consist of ball with hole in the middle Courtesy of Akron Brass Company
Valves • Clapper mechanisms – Prevent water from flowing backward – Commonly used in FDCs • Gate valves – Found on fire hydrants and sprinkler systems – Rotating spindle causes gate to move across opening Courtesy of Akron Brass Company
Valves • Butterfly valves – Often found on large pump intake connections – Rotate handle one-quarter turn • Four-way hydrant valves – Enable water to flow directly from hydrant to attack engine – Can boost pressure in supply hose without interrupting flow of water Courtesy of Akron Brass Company
Valves • Remote-controlled hydrant valve – Attaches to fire hydrant – Allows operator to turn hydrant on without flowing water into hose line – Operated by pump operator with radio control
Master Stream Appliances • Produce high-volume water streams for large fires • Discharge 350 to 1500 gpm (1325 to 5678 L/min) • Deck gun – Permanently mounted on and operated from vehicle – Also known as turret pipe or wagon pipe © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Master Stream Appliances • Portable monitor – Can be carried on and removed from apparatus – Placed on ground and connected to hose lines © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Master Stream Appliances • Elevated master stream – Mounted on aerial apparatus • Ladder pipe – Elevated master stream device mounted close to tip of aerial ladder or tower ladder © Steve. Stone/i. Stockphoto. com
Nozzles • Attach to discharge end-of-attack lines to give fire streams shape and direction. • Used on all sizes of handlines and master stream devices • Three groups – Low-volume nozzles – Handline nozzles – Master stream nozzles
Nozzle Shut-Off • Starts or stops flow of water • Some incorporate a rotary control valve • Breakaway fire nozzle – Designed so tip of nozzle can be separated from shut-off valve – Allows fire fighters to add more lengths of hose without shutting off valve at engine
Types of Nozzles • Two types – Smooth-bore nozzles • Produce solid stream or column of water – Fog-stream nozzles • Can be adjusted to produce straight stream or to separate water into droplets • To produce a good fire stream, nozzles require – Adequate volume of water – Adequate pressure
Smooth-Bore Nozzles • Consist of shut-off valve and smooth-bore tips • Fit handlines and master stream devices • Stacked tips allow different stream sizes © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Smooth-Bore Nozzles • Advantages – Longer reach than combination fog nozzle – Operate at lower pressures – Easier to handle – Extinguishes fire with less air movement and less disturbance of thermal layering than a fog stream
Smooth-Bore Nozzles • Disadvantages – Not as effective for hydraulic ventilation – Cannot change setting to produce fog pattern
Fog Stream Nozzles • Produce fine droplets that absorb more heat per gallon than straight stream • Can be used to reduce room temperature to prevent flashover • Cannot produce solid stream © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Fog Stream Nozzles • Advantages – Can produce a variety of stream patterns – Can be used to create a water curtain to protect fire fighters from extreme heat • Disadvantages – Move large volumes of air along with water • Can push hot steam and gases onto fire fighters – If used incorrectly, can push fire into unaffected areas
Fog Stream Nozzles • Nozzles must operate at recommended pressure to produce effective stream – Traditionally 100 psi (689 k. Pa) – Modern nozzles may operate at 50 or 75 psi (345 or 517 k. Pa)
Types of Fog Stream Nozzles • Fixed gallonage – Delivers preset flow at rated discharge pressure • Adjustable gallonage – Allows operator to select desired flow • Automatic adjusting – Delivers wide range of flows
Other Types of Nozzles • Piercing nozzles – Used to make holes in automobile sheet metal, aircraft, or building walls to extinguish fires behind them © Goodman Photography/Shutterstock, Inc.
Other Types of Nozzles • Cellar nozzles and Bresnan distributor nozzles – Used to fight fires in cellars and other inaccessible places • Water curtain nozzles – Delivers protective flat curtain of water on surface of an exposed building Courtesy of Akron Brass Company. Courtesy of POK of North America, Inc.
Nozzle Maintenance and Inspection • Nozzles should be – Inspected on a regular basis – Checked after each use – Kept clean and clear of debris • Lightly grease valve ball. • Inspect fog nozzle fingers. © Jones & Bartlett Learning. Photographed by Glen E. Ellman.
Summary • Fire hose range in size from 3⁄4 in. to 6 in. (19 mm to 152 mm) in diameter. – Forestry fire hose is 3⁄4 in. (19 mm), 1 in. (25 mm), or 1½ in. (38 mm) in diameter. – Booster hose is 1 in. (25 mm) in diameter. Although it is classified as attack hose, it should not be used for structural or vehicle firefighting. The normal flow from a 1 -in. (25 -mm) booster hose is in the range of 40 to 50 gpm (151 to 189 L/min).
Summary – Most fire departments use either 1½-in. (38 -mm) or 1¾-in. (44 -mm) diameter hose as the primary attack hose for most fires. – A 2½-in. (65 -mm) hose can be used either as attack hose or supply hose, but it is most often used as attack hose for large fires. It generally delivers a flow of approximately 250 gpm (946 L/min). – A 3 -in. (76 -mm) hose is often used as supply hose. Most large-diameter hose (3½ in. [88 mm] or more) is constructed as supply hose. The largest largediameter hose size is 6 in. (152 mm) in diameter.
Summary • Fire hose is constructed with an inner waterproof liner surrounded by either one or two outer layers. • Hose couplings are used to connect or couple individual lengths of fire hose together. They are also used to connect a hose line to a hydrant, to a suction or discharge valve on an engine, or to a variety of nozzles, fittings, and appliances. A coupling is permanently attached to each end of a section of fire hose.
Summary • The two types of couplings are threaded hose couplings and Storz-type hose couplings. – A set of threaded hose couplings includes a male hose coupling with threads on the outside on one end of the hose and a female hose coupling with threads on the inside on the other end of the hose. Threaded hose couplings are used on most hose up to 3 in. (76 mm) in diameter. Threaded hose couplings provide a secure connection between two sections of hose when properly coupled. A disadvantage is that they are prone to cross threading.
Summary – Storz-type couplings are designed so that the couplings on both ends of a length of hose are the same. When this system is used, each coupling can be attached to any other coupling of the same diameter. They are connected by mating the two couplings face-to-face and then turning them clockwise into a locking position. One disadvantage is that these couplings are more prone to accidental disconnect if they are not completely coupled.
Summary • Several techniques are used for connecting and disconnecting hose couplings. Depending on the circumstances, one technique may be more effective than another. • Fire hose are used as supply hose and as attack hose.
Summary • Supply hose are used to deliver water from a static water source or from a fire hydrant to an attack engine. They are designed to carry larger volumes of water at lower pressures than attack hose. Supply hose can either be soft sleeve or hard suction.
Summary – Soft sleeve hose is a short section of large-diameter supply hose that is used to connect a fire department engine directly to the large steamer outlet on a hydrant. A soft sleeve hose may have a Storz or similar connections on both ends, or it may have threaded female connections on each end, with one end matching the local fire hydrant threads and the other end matching the threads on the suction side of the fire pump. If it has two Storz connections, an adaptor is required to connect the large diameter inlet to the engine and the fire hydrant.
Summary – A hard suction hose is a special type of supply hose that is used to draft water from a static source such as a river, lake, or portable drafting basin to the suction side of the fire pump on a fire department engine or into a portable pump. It can also be used to carry water from a fire hydrant to the pumper. It is designed to remain rigid and will not collapse when a vacuum is created in the hose to draft the water into the pump.
Summary • Attack hose is designed to be used for fire suppression. This hose carries the water from the attack engine to the fire or to an FDC or from a standpipe system to the fire. Attack hose usually operate at higher pressures than supply lines do. • Fire hose should be inspected often and tested annually following the procedures in NFPA 1962, Standard for the Care, Use, Inspection, Service Testing, and Replacement of Fire Hose, Couplings, Nozzles, and Fire Hose Appliances.
Summary • The most common causes of hose damage are mechanical damage, heat and cold damage, UV radiation, chemical damage, and mildew damage. • Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for cleaning and maintaining hose. For a mild cleaning, cool water and a soft brush may be adequate. For dirty hose, it may be necessary to use a mild detergent.
Summary • Visual hose inspections should be performed at least quarterly. A visual inspection of hose should be performed after each use. If any defects are found, the length of hose should be marked, and the hose should be removed from service. • Rolled hose is compact and easy to manage and transport. A fire hose can be rolled different ways, depending on how it will be used. Follow the SOPs of your department when rolling hose.
Summary • Hose appliances are used in conjunction with a fire hose for the purpose of delivering water. Appliances include wyes, water thieves, Siamese connections, adaptors, reducers, hose jackets, hose rollers, hose bridges, hose clamps, and some valves.
Summary • Master stream appliances or devices are used to produce high-volume water streams for large fires. Most master stream appliances discharge between 350 gpm (1325 L/min) and 1500 gpm (5678 L/min). These include deck guns, portable monitors, and elevated master stream appliances. • Nozzles produce streams of water or extinguishing agents such as foam, giving them shape and direction.
Summary • Nozzles can be classified based on the size of the fire stream: – Low-volume nozzles flow 40 gpm (151 L/min) or less. In structural firefighting, they are primarily used for booster hose; their use is limited to small outside fires. – Handline nozzles are used on hose lines ranging from 1½ in. (38 mm) to 2½ in. (65 mm) in diameter. Handline streams usually flow between 60 and 350 gpm (227 and 1325 L/min). – Master stream nozzles are used on deck guns, portable monitors, and ladder pipes that flow more than 350 gpm (1325 L/min).
Summary • Nozzle shut-off valves enable the fire fighter at the nozzle to start or stop the flow of water.
Summary • Nozzles can be classified by type. Two types, the smooth-bore nozzle and the fog-stream nozzle, are manufactured for the fire service. – Smooth-bore nozzles produce a solid stream, or a solid column of water. Smooth-bore nozzles are manufactured to fit both handlines and master stream appliances. – Fog-stream nozzles can be adjusted to produce a straight stream or to separate the water into droplets to produce a variety of fog streams.
Summary • Several other types of nozzles are used for special purposes. – Piercing nozzles are used to make a hole in sheet metal or building walls to extinguish fires. – Cellar nozzles and Bresnan distributor nozzles are used to fight fires in cellars or basements and other inaccessible places. – Water curtain nozzles are used to deliver a flat screen of water that forms a protective sheet of water on the surface of an exposed building.
Summary • Nozzles should be inspected on a regular basis, along with all of the equipment on every fire department apparatus.