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Chapter 14 Violence, Abuse, and Harassment
What is Violence? "The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation. " —World Health Organization
WHO's Classification of Violence Self-directed violence • Suicidal behavior • Self-mutilation • Risk factors include female gender, adolescence/college age, and previous history of self-abuse. Interpersonal violence • Family/partner violence—stalking, domestic battering, elder abuse, child abuse, rape • Community violence—robbery, carjackings, aggravated assault, rape, homicide, sexual harassment
WHO's Classification of Violence (continued) Collective Violence • Violence directed at a specific nation or population: armed conflicts; genocide, repression, and other human rights abuses; terrorism; organized violent crime • Violence directed at women as a group: female genital mutilation, female infanticide, trafficking, acts of rape during war
Perspectives on Violence Sociocultural Issues Events that “trigger” violence • Not obeying one’s husband/partner • Talking back to one’s husband/partner • Not having food ready on time • Failing to care adequately for children or home • Questioning one’s husband/partner about money or girlfriends • Going somewhere without permission • Refusing one’s husband or partner sex • Expressing suspicions of infidelity
Violence Against Women in the U. S. • Four major types of violent crime: simple assault, aggravated assault, rape/sexual assault, and robbery • Most common crime is simple assault. • Most female victims of violence are attacked by someone they know.
Historical Trends • U. S. courts did not criminalize wife beating until the twentieth century • Spanish explorers used female Native American captives for sexual services • Seventeenth-century New England female servants represented one-third of rape victims • African female servants in the South were victimized by white overseers
Links Between Poverty and Violence, Drug and Alcohol • Stresses of poverty make violence more likely to occur (for women and men) • Lack of a safety net makes violence harder to escape Women in families with the lowest household incomes are victimized seven times more than women with the highest household incomes.
Other Influences on Violence Alcohol/Drug Influences • 75% of victims report alcohol/drug use by the offender at the time of the crime • Substance use and abuse are consistently associated with violence Media Influences • 1 in 5 children (ages 10– 17 years) receives unwanted sexual solicitations on the Internet
Global Issues Violence is against women is present in every country and setting, but the amount of violence varies. Between 15% and 71% of women have experienced some partner violence. At some point in their lives. Violence is associated with: • Rural settings • Poverty • Societies with regressive views about women • Low education • Growing up in a violent household
Costs of Victimization • U. S. government spent $167 billion for police protection, corrections, and judicial and legal activities in 2001 • Victims and families received $370 million in compensation benefits in 2001
Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) • Made crossing state lines to continue to abuse a spouse/partner a crime • Created tough new penalties for sex offenders • Prohibited anyone facing a restraining order for domestic abuse from possessing a firearm • Provided substantial commitment of federal resources for police and prevention service initiatives • Required sexual offenders to pay restitution to their victims • Reauthorized in 2013 and expanded to allow greater protections for Native Americans and lesbians.
Violence Against Women Act, Cont. • Required states to pay for rape examinations • Provided funds for federal victim-witness counselors • Extended rape shield laws to protect crime victims (no abusive inquiries into a woman’s private conduct allowed) • Required that released offenders report to local enforcement authorities
Global Issues • 20% to 50% of the female population worldwide will become victims of domestic violence in their lifetime • Sexual violence in health-care settings – Sexual harassment by providers – Genital mutilation – Forced gynecological exams – Obligatory inspections of virginity • Child abuse and trafficking • Rape as a weapon of war – Bosnia-Herzegovina, Sudan, and other locations • Progress being made in many areas
Family and Intimate Violence: Stalking • Reported visual or physical proximity (on two or more occasions) • Nonconsensual communication • Verbal, written, or implied threats • A combination thereof that would cause fear in a reasonable person
Family and Intimate Violence Stalking realities • 81% of women stalked by a current husband, former husband, or cohabitating partner were physically assaulted by that partner • 31% of women stalked were sexually abused by that partner • First anti-stalking law was passed in California in 1990 • Cyberstalking is a factor in 20% to 40% of all stalking cases reported
Domestic Violence (Battering) Root causes: • • Growing up in a cycle of violence and abuse Distorted concepts of manhood Insecurity, feelings of loss of power and control Poverty and unemployment Lack of housing and displacement Alcohol and substance abuse Hopelessness and despair Circumstances of racism and injustice
Domestic Violence Battering in same-sex relationships • In 2001, there were over 5, 000 reported incidents of same -sex domestic violence; 43% identified as female • Fewer protective measures and protective services in place for lesbian victims Battering during pregnancy • Each year, as many as 324, 000 pregnant women experience intimate partner violence • Linked to an increased risk of miscarriage, premature labor, fetal distress, and low birthweight Battering in women with disabilities • Most commonly abused by intimate partner, family member, personal care attendant
Child Abuse and Maltreatment • Roughly 700, 000 U. S. children are victims of abuse every year • Women represent nearly 60% of all perpetrators (but a greater % of caretakers) • Almost 1, 500 children die a year from abuse or neglect Major types of maltreatment of children: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and medical neglect
Elder Abuse Three major situations for abuse of the elderly 1. Domestic abuse 2. Institutional abuse 3. Self-neglect Seven types of elder abuse 1. Physical elder abuse 2. Sexual elder abuse 3. Emotional elder abuse 4. Financial exploitation 5. Neglect 6. Self-neglect 7. Abandonment
Rape and Sexual Assault • More than 200, 000 reported victims of rape, attempted rape, or sexual assault in the United States a year • Date rape drugs—Rohypnol, GHB, GBL, “Special K”— have been used in many cases • Nine of ten victims of rape were female • 67% of rape victims know their assailants • About 44% of rape victims are under the age of 18 • Marital rape only became a crime in all 50 states 20 years ago.
Reducing Risk of Date Rape • Be wary of dominance by partner in a relationship. • Be wary when a date tries to control behavior or pressures others in any way. • Be explicit with communication and stating “no. ” • Avoid ambiguous messages with verbal and nonverbal behavior. • Consider first dates in a group setting. • Avoid remote or isolated spots. • Limit alcohol and drug use.
Violence by Strangers Common crimes increasing • Carjacking • Robbery • Murder • Gang violence • Sexual assault • Rape Hate crimes • Roughly 7, 500 hate crimes are reported a year • Most motivated by race; but also by religion, orientation, ethnicity or disability
Sexual Harassment Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical actions of a sexual nature where • Submission to this conduct is a term or condition of an individual’s employment (directly or implied) OR • A person’s acceptance or rejection of the sexual conduct becomes used for employment decisions, OR • The conduct unreasonably interferes with a person’s work performance, or creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive working environment --Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Sexual Harassment Doesn’t Just Occur at the Workplace! More than half of female students have been subjected to inappropriate sexual comments and jokes and more than 1/3 have experienced physical harassment. Less than 10% reported the incident. If you are sexually harassed (or if you witness sexual harassment): • Let the offending person know that the behavior is unwanted and inappropriate • If the behavior continues… • Inform appropriate authority figure (dean, supervisor, HR department, etc) • Let other people know about the behavior – can gain social support, and you may not be the only victim.
Ending Violence Against Women • Have you, or has someone you know, been affected by violence? • How, if at all, was the problem resolved? • What are some ways to prevent violence and get help to women who need it?