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Chapter 14 Integrated Program Design and the Optimum Performance Training (OPT™) Model
Goal/Purpose of this Lecture • Teaching personal trainers the needed elements of program design • Teaching the personal trainer to administer individualized program design for clients
Learning Outcomes • Presentation Goals: – Identifying multiple aspects of the OPT model. – Explaining the different phases of the OPT model. – Construct a program for each phase of the OPT model. – Use scientifically proven protocols for program design
Developing Workouts • Outdated Programs – Works off of experience of the personal trainer. – Not backed by science – Can be confusing • OPT Model Programs – Scientifically proven to be effective and safe – Enables personal trainers to develop workouts for any client. – Simplified fitness approach
Designing a Program • Implementing a plan to achieve a given goal • Allows the client see the road they have to take to achieve said goal. – Personal trainers must have requisite knowledge in the field to develop optimal programs.
Designing a Program • Knowing what workouts are right for a particular client – – – What exercises are not recommended for this client? How intense should a workout be? Does the client have limitations? How much volume does a client need? How much rest does a client need?
Periodization • Adaptations of stabilization, strength and power need to be progressed appropriately. • Foundation build on adequate work in each phase (stabilization, strength, power) • Stabilization (around 6 weeks) • Strength and power (3 -4 weeks is more optimal) • Some variables must be changed every 3 -6 weeks to avoid plateauing
Phases of the OPT Model • 5 Phases of training • What adaptations does each phase consist of? • What are the appropriate acute variables for each of the 5 phases?
Phases of the OPT • Choose the right exercises • Choosing the acute variables like sets, reps, and rest. • Administering periodization to fit a client's individual level of fitness, needs, and goals.
Concepts of Program Design • Whats up next? • Periodization • Acute variables • The OPT Model and the 5 phases • Applying OPT Model program design to different exercise goals
Concepts of Program Design
What are Acute Variables? • How to they determine the effect of a training program? • How do they affect the adaptation that will occur?
Acute Variables • Rudimentary aspects of a workout routine • Determines the load which will be placed on a client and how their body will react to that load.
Acute Variables • • • Reps Sets Intensity Volume Tempo Rest Movements for a given workout (exercises) Order of exercises in a workout Length of session (duration) Number of sessions per week (frequency
Reps • Going through the three muscle actions that complete a movement • Concentric • Isometric • Eccentric • Counting the number of movements given in a particular set – can manipulate tempo to add or decrease time under tension
Reps • Different rep schemes are used to achieve different goals according to a particular tier one is working in. • Power Reps = 1 -10 • Maximal Strength Reps = 1 -5* • Hypertrophy Reps = 6 -12 • Endurance and Stabilization Reps = 12 -20*
Sets • Given number of reps in row • Set factors – Repetitions – Intensity – How many exercises – Clients experience – How well/how fast client recovers • Inverse relationship between sets, repetitions, and intensity
Sets • Less sets, more reps, lower intensity workouts • Endurance and hypertrophy • More sets, lower reps, higher intensity workouts • Strength and power *Limit total sets to 12 for new clients to avoid overtraining* • Stabilization and Muscular Endurance = 1 -3 sets* • Hypertrophy = 3 -5 sets • Maximal Strength = 4 -6 sets • Power = 3 -6 sets
Intensity • How hard one is working in relation to their 1 RM • Use training goals and experience to determine • Stabilization and Muscular Endurance = 50 -70% 1 RM • Hypertrophy = 75 -85% 1 RM • Max Strength = 85 -100% 1 RM • Power = 30 -45% 1 RM or 10% of BW
Training Intensity • Altering the environment increases intensity – Clients need more experience and coordination for higher intensities – Increases muscle activity and joint stabilization
Tempo • Time under tension for a muscle during one repetition, the speed of the rep. • Changing this is important for different training goals • Muscular Endurance and Stabilization = 4/2/1 Slow* (eccentric/isometric/concentric)* • Hypertrophy = 2/0/2 • Maximal Strength and Power = x/x/x (as fast or powerful/explosive as possible for power)
Repetition Tempo • Repetition tempo spectrum of muscle action – Changes the outcome on muscles being used – Use more eccentric and isometric movements in early stages of training to strengthen connective tissue, and prep nervous system for future movements – Increases coordination – Must have foundational strength in each tier
Importance of Rest • The length of time taken to recover between sets • Can significantly impact the yield and adaptations gained from a workout • Training tier and goals will determine rest intervals. • Manipulates energy systems being used for exercise
Rest between Sets • Time when ATP is being restored in body to be used for next set – determining factor for desired adaptations • Manipulating rest intervals will help regulate energy stores of ATP. – – 20– 30 seconds: we get about 50% of ATP-PC back 40 seconds: we get about 75% of ATP-PC back 60 seconds: we get about 85 -90% of ATP-PC back 3 minutes: we get about 100% of ATP-PC back
Manipulating Rest – Stabilization and muscular endurance can be influenced by resting 0 -90 seconds* – Hypertrophy can be influenced by resting 0 -60* seconds – Maximal strength* is best influenced with 3 -5 minutes* of rest as well as Power. One's fitness level is also a factor in resting for power exercise.
Training Volume • Sum of work done is a given amount of time. • Sets multiplied by reps at load lifted gives training volume • 3 sets x 155 Lbs for 10 reps = 30 x 155= 4650 pounds lifted – Good for hypertrophy goals
Training Volume • Has an inverse relationship with intensity – High intensity exercise needs to be done at low volume • Volume is selected according to one's goals and which training phase they are in Higher Volume Training Low to Moderate Intensity Lower volume Training High Intensity Larger cross-sectional area of muscles Rate of force production increase Regulates/improves levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood Motor unit recruitment increase Improves metabolic rate Motor unit synchronization increases
Training Frequency • Amount of training sessions done in a given period of time (typically a week) • Training session variables – – – – Training goals Age General health Work capacity Nutritional status Recoverability Lifestyle and other stressors
Training Frequency • Strength recommendations are 3 -5 training sessions per week • 1 to 2 times per week is bare minimum needed to maintain any current gains
Duration of Training • The length of time spanning from the start of the workout to the end of the workout • Also can be the time spent in a specific phase of training
Duration • With warm up and cool down most sessions should be 60 -90 minutes – ATP and glycogen breakdown through anaerobic glycolysis are being used as primary sources of energy during resistance training – Oxidation(Glycolysis) is used during aerobic work. – Hormone and immune systems are responding to stress during this time
Choosing Exercises • Selecting specific exercises for a workout • Client's goals and level of fitness are determining factors to exercise selection. Tier of training Stabilization and Endurance Full body; multijoint or single joint, controlled or unstable environments Strength Total body; multijoint or single joint Power Total body; multijoint but explosive
Exercise Selection Examples - New clients in stabilization tier are recommended to do 1 -2 exercises per muscle group/body part. * Tier Total Body Multijoint Single Joint Stabilization Step up + balance to overhead DB press Stability ball DB chest press Single-leg overhead DB Standing overhead press tricep extension Strength Squat + curl to overhead DB press Barbell back squat Barbell bench press Seated cable row Standing barbell bicep curl Power Thrusters (2 -arm push press) Two-arm repeated medicine ball slams Tow-arm medicine ball chest pass N/A
Exercise Selection • Progression Continuum used to systematically advance clients when necessary. • Note: the Lower Body Progression Continuum* • Stabilization • Floor-sport beam-half foam roll-foam pad-balance disc-wobble board-bosu ball • Lower Body • Both legs stable-staggered stance stable-single leg stable-two leg unstable-staggered stance unstablesingle leg unstable • Upper body • Two arm-alternating arm-single are trunk rotation
Periodization • Breaking training program into small, progressive periods • Intermittently modifies training protocols throughout the duration of a workout program to promote optimal adaptations. • Two main goals – break up a workout program into specific individual phases – Manipulating forms of strength that are trained during each phase • Controls fatigue and volume of training • Prevents injury
Periodization and the OPT™ Model • Training Plans – Annual (macrocycle) • Creates a 1 -year workout plan – Monthly (mesocycle) • Illustrates where clients are in their program and lets them know what training focus their workouts will have in advance as well as their rest days. – Weekly Plan (microcycle) • Day by day breakdown of the workouts to come with more detail and information when compared to monthly and annual plans.
Periodization • Macro means large or long = 1 year • Meso means middle = monthly • Micro means small = weekly and or daily
The OPT™ Model Stabilization Strength Power Stabilization Endurance Strength Endurance Hypertrophy Max Strength Power
Stabilization • Places attention/focus on stabilization abilities • Gets the body ready for higher degree of difficulty exercise • Desired outcome – – Fix any muscle imbalances with corrective exercise Strengthen core muscles Improve stabilization Get muscles, tendons, and joints strengthened and prepared for higher loads/volume to come – Cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular conditioning – Develop efficient movement patterns
Stabilization • Tier 1: Stabilization Endurance – Starting point for most beginners – Develops posture, body control, and ability to stabilize – Moving in multiple planes of motion and doing so in unstable environments is optimal • Builds functional strength and neuromuscular control • Teaching clients how to move properly
Reps Sets Tempo Core 12 -20 1 -4 4/2/1 Balance 12 -20 6 -10 (SL) Stabilization 1 -3 4/2/1 Plyometric (must 5 -8 have requisite core stability and balance) 1 -3 3 -5 s hold on landing SAQ (must have requisite core stability and balance) 2 -3 1 -2 moderate Resistance* (50 -70% 1 RM) (0 -90 s Rest) 12 -20 1 -3 4/2/1
Strength • Hypertrophy and maximal strength • Goals – Strengthen the core so it can stabilize and protect the lower back during higher intensity exercises, higher amounts of volume, and heavier loads – Strengthen muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints so they can take on heavier loads. – Workout with more volume – Improve ability to handle metabolic demand by exhausting the ATP-PC and glycolysis energy systems to influence cellular changes in muscle (weight loss or hypertrophy) – Develop more efficient motor unit recruitment, frequency of motor unit recruitment, and motor unit synchronization (maximal strength)
Strength • Phase 2: Strength Endurance – Improves stabilization endurance and increases strength – Super-set • Pairing a stable exercise such as barbell bench press with an unstable exercise (such as a stability ball dumbbell chest press)* • Optimal for raising motor unit recruitment after fatiguing primary muscle group (prime movers) and strengthening dynamic joint stabilization
Strength Reps Sets Tempo Flexibility 5 -10 1 -2 s hold Core 8 -12 2 -3 medium Balance 8 -12 2 -3 medium Plyometric 8 -10 2 -3 repeating SAQ 3 -5 3 -4 fast Resistance 8 -12 2 -4 (Str) 2/0/2 (Stab) 4/2/1
Strength • Phase 3: Hypertrophy – Specific to maximal hypertrophy – Attention to high volume with minimal rest • Adaptations incurred to increase muscle cell size/muscle cell volume* • This in turn allows for more force production during max strength
Strength/Hypertrophy Stage Reps Sets Tempo Flexibility 5 -10 1 -2 s hold Core 8 -12 2 -3 Medium Balance 8 -12 2 -3 Medium Plyometric 8 -10 2 -3 Repeating SAQ 3 -5 3 -4 Fast Resistance* (75 -85% 1 RM Intensity) (0 -60 s Rest) 6 -12 3 -5 2/0/2
Maximal Strength • Phase 4: Maximal Strength – Using heavier weights/increasing load – Requires recruitment of more motor units • Enhances firing rate and synchronization – Is not right for all clients
Max Strength Stage Reps Sets Tempo Flexibility 5 -10 1 -2 s hold Core 8 -12 2 -3 1/1/1 Balance 8 -12 2 -3 1/1/1 Plyometric 8 -10 2 -3 Repeating SAQ 3 -5 3 -4 Fast Resistance* (85 -100% 1 RM Intensity) (3 -5 min Rest) 1 -5 4 -6 As fast as can be controlled
Power • More speed during muscle contraction • Rate of force production • Desired outcomes – Movements with higher velocity – Increase the standard of force produced by raising the amount of motor units activated, synchronized, and how fast they are excited
Power • Phase 5: Power – Superset a strength exercise with a power exercise • Work an 85 -100% 1 RM strength exercise to increase motor neuron excitability and reflex potentiation • Follow up with a 30 -45% 1 RM exercise and do reps as fast as possible • Ex: Barbell back squat followed by squat jump*
Reps Sets 1 -2 Power 2 -3 Tempo Flexibility 10 -15 Controlled Core 8 -12 Balance 8 -12 2 -3 Controlled Plyometric 8 -12 2 -3 As fast as can be controlled SAQ 3 -5 As fast as can be controlled Resistance 3 -5 min Rest 1 -5(Strength @ 85100%) 1 -10(Power @ 3045% 1 RM or 10% BW) 3 -5 As fast as can be controlled
Applying the OPT™ Model • Scientifically backed periodized system that is user friendly • Easy to manipulate to fit the needs of any client and avoid plateauing • Common wants/needs of clients – Reduce body fat – Increase lean body mass – Enhance general sports performance
Weight Loss or Body Fat Loss • Calories in vs. calories out • Resistance training combined with regular cardio and improved nutritional habits has been proven to aid in body fat reduction • This will also help to increase muscular strength • Clients with this goal only need stabilization, strength endurance, and hypertrophy to accomplish desired outcomes. – Always start with stabilization to build a strong foundation and alleviate any potential imbalances. – Stay in stabilization for roughly four weeks (stay longer if needed).
Leaner and More Muscle • Use stabilization, strength endurance, hypertrophy, and maximal strength to achieve goals • Power is optional based off of clients abilities and other potential secondary goals.
Becoming a Better Athlete • May use all tiers for clients wanting to enhance sport performance – Most fitness clients will be just fine with stabilization, muscular endurance, and power
Summary • Assess what type of workout plan/program will get a client to their goals in the most efficient way • Variables to consider – Sets – Reps – Intensity – Tempo – Rest
Summary • Exercise selection is determined by client goals and assessment results – Example: Chest for the Power Phase consists of a 85 -100% 1 RM chest-strength exercise followed by a chest-power exercise at 30 -45% done as fast as possible • Bench press followed by a medicine ball chest past for many reps.
Summary • Increase intensity by selecting a particular system of training (pyramid, superset, circuits, etc. ) • Use resistance training section protocols for exercise selection • Use split routines if desired • Follow guidelines for optimal workout routines – Once you are more comfortable with designing workouts feel free to experiment and get creative but still stay within guidelines.