Chapter 14 Child Maltreatment 2007 by Thomson Delmar

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Chapter 14: Child Maltreatment © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Chapter 14: Child Maltreatment © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Policies Needed for Child Maltreatment • Every year – – – At least 1,

Policies Needed for Child Maltreatment • Every year – – – At least 1, 500 children die 29, 850 become disabled 142, 000 are seriously injured 2. 9 million cases involving 5. 5 million children are reported more than one half of the children who die are under one year of age © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Policies for Child Maltreatment • Preventive measures • Protective measures • Working with children

Policies for Child Maltreatment • Preventive measures • Protective measures • Working with children from substanceabusing families • Implications for teachers © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Preventive Measures for Child Maltreatment • Begin at the early childhood education site •

Preventive Measures for Child Maltreatment • Begin at the early childhood education site • Screening for abuse potential – Screen potential employees for history of abuse • • queries about childhood reasons for working with children “What if” situations to elaborate on – Probationary period enforced to observe treatment of children – © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Preventive Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Prevent accusations Inform parents of child abuse

Preventive Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Prevent accusations Inform parents of child abuse policy – Teachers are mandated reporters – Early childhood education steps to prevent abuse in care – • • • Set up to be “open”—no situation that could lead to privacy for teacher and child Written policy of discipline and guidance that is followed by all “Ouch reports” are filled out, a copy given to parents, and a copy in child’s health file © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Preventive Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Establish trusting relationship with families • Look

Preventive Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Establish trusting relationship with families • Look for early warning signs of distress • Respond to family crises by offering real support and connections to resources for families © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Preventive Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Intervention – Observation • • – Identify

Preventive Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Intervention – Observation • • – Identify when parents are under stress Identify when children are under stress Discussion • • Establish good communication relationship with parents Talking with teacher may help parents relieve stress © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Preventive Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) – Action • • – Inform parents of

Preventive Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) – Action • • – Inform parents of coping skills Refer parent to resource for help Understand factors that may lead to maltreatment, for example • • significant changes in lifestyle unrealistic expectations of child’s capabilities (lack of developmental knowledge) poor impulse control under influence of drugs or alcohol © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

 Reality Check—Shaken Baby Syndrome • Form of child maltreatment that involves forceful or

Reality Check—Shaken Baby Syndrome • Form of child maltreatment that involves forceful or violent shaking of a child from birth to five years of age. – only shaking—not dropping, not seizures, nor vaccinations • Most common in children under two • Sudden movements cause parts of brain to pull away, and this tears brain cells and blood vessels © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

 Reality Check—Shaken Baby Syndrome (continued) • Shaking need only last 20 seconds (40

Reality Check—Shaken Baby Syndrome (continued) • Shaking need only last 20 seconds (40 to 50 shakes) to do damage. • Can affect children up to 5 years of age • Children with disabilities are more likely to be shaken • One in four babies dies – Most others have permanent brain damage © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

 Reality Check—Shaken Baby Syndrome (continued) • Period of purple crying • Permanent injuries

Reality Check—Shaken Baby Syndrome (continued) • Period of purple crying • Permanent injuries range from – – – partial to complete blindness and hearing loss seizure disorder cerebral palsy others may include permanent vegetative state © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

 Reality Check—Shaken Baby Syndrome (continued) • Fathers or boyfriend of mothers most likely

Reality Check—Shaken Baby Syndrome (continued) • Fathers or boyfriend of mothers most likely to do this • Females are more likely to be child caregivers than mothers • Immediate medical help may reduce the degree of impact • Education is needed for caregivers and parents to prevent this syndrome © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment • Recognition – indicators of abuse • • physical

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment • Recognition – indicators of abuse • • physical abuse emotional abuse sexual abuse neglect © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Physical indicators of physical abuse (Table 14

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Physical indicators of physical abuse (Table 14 -4) – – – bruises burns bite marks (unexplained) lacerations or abrasions head injury or whiplash other (e. g. , internal injuries) © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Behavioral indicators of physical abuse – –

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Behavioral indicators of physical abuse – – – – tells you that parent(s) or other adult hurt them over compliant poor self-concept extremes in behavior does not want to leave child care indiscriminately seeks affection or wary of contact vacant, withdrawn, or detached © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Physical indicators of emotional abuse (Table 14

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Physical indicators of emotional abuse (Table 14 -5) – – – failure to thrive depressed or withdrawn disruptive or hyperactive repetitive rhythmic movement (rocking, etc. ) little facial affect speech or language disorder © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Behavioral indicators of emotional abuse – –

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Behavioral indicators of emotional abuse – – – rigid in conformity to authority destructive or antisocial demanding parent with unrealistic expectations of child’s capabilities unusual fears lagging in cognitive or emotional development aggressive/compliant extremes © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Physical indicators of sexual abuse (Table 146)

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Physical indicators of sexual abuse (Table 146) – – – – torn, stained, or bloody underclothing pain, itching, or swelling of genital area bruises, lacerations, or bleeding in genital or anal area discharge in genital area difficulty in walking or sitting pain during urination or defecation venereal disease © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Behavioral indicators of sexual abuse – –

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Behavioral indicators of sexual abuse – – – – frequent masturbation inappropriate sexual knowledge or behavior withdrawn, fantasizing, infantile depression poor self-esteem/image exceptional fear of a person or place draws scary pictures with black and red © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Physical indicators of neglect (Table 14 -7)

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Physical indicators of neglect (Table 14 -7) – – – – always hungry, dirty, or inappropriately dressed unsupervised for long periods of time lacks medical or dental care unsanitary home conditions poor growth, underweight poor school attendance abandonment © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Behavioral indicators of neglect – – –

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Behavioral indicators of neglect – – – stealing or begging for food or money for food parent bringing child early and picking up late inappropriate attachment or affection showing or expressing no emotion parent abusing drugs or alcohol overly responsible, assuming adult role © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Documentation – – – If abuse is

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Documentation – – – If abuse is suspected, document indicators Observe child at different times, in different situations, and record in note form Record behavior, conversation, and physical signs Anecdotal record best type for this Keep records for a period of time to refer to later © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Reporting – – – Reporting process should

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Reporting – – – Reporting process should be clear State process should be kept at early childhood education site Child’s name, address, and age must be included Parents’ names and addresses should be given, if separate addresses Anonymity for teacher will be provided © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Reporting (continued) Teacher may want to talk

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Reporting (continued) Teacher may want to talk to parents first – Teacher may want to plan to help parents through process to support family – © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Caring for the abused child Teacher should

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • Caring for the abused child Teacher should examine feelings about the issue – Can the teacher deliver the care the child needs without prejudice? – Teacher determines level of understanding of normal behavior – Teacher needs to learn how to redirect behaviors that may result from abuse – © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • To help and support maltreated child, the

Protective Measures for Child Maltreatment (continued) • To help and support maltreated child, the teacher needs to provide – – – trust predictable routines consistent behavior safe boundaries confidence good communication skills © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

 Reality Check—Domestic Violence and Its Effect on Children’s Lives • Women battered, children

Reality Check—Domestic Violence and Its Effect on Children’s Lives • Women battered, children abused or neglected • 14% of children in the United States experience family violence • Changes in family systems have led to greater stress divorce/single parent – poverty – drug and alcohol abuse – © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

 Reality Check—Domestic Violence and Its Effect on Children’s Lives (continued) • Occurs at

Reality Check—Domestic Violence and Its Effect on Children’s Lives (continued) • Occurs at every SES level, in every racial, ethnic, and religious group • Even if not abused, witnessing abuse has traumatic effect on children – Children can suffer from PTSD • Children feel isolated with nowhere to go • Teachers can provide trust and a safe haven • Teachers can model prosocial behaviors © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Working with Children from Substance-Abusing Families • Prenatal exposure to drugs can cause the

Working with Children from Substance-Abusing Families • Prenatal exposure to drugs can cause the following developmental difficulties: • • • inability to organize play sporadic mastery learning problems/strategies difficulty with motor skills impaired ability for language development or communication lack of sense of self © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Working with Children from Substance. Abusing Families (continued) • • The recovering family The

Working with Children from Substance. Abusing Families (continued) • • The recovering family The actively abusing family The foster family Kinship family © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Working with Children from Substance. Abusing Families (continued) • Establishing a relationship with the

Working with Children from Substance. Abusing Families (continued) • Establishing a relationship with the family • Working with the children Provide safe and protective environment – Provide consistency, stability – © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

Implications for Teachers • Education – With children • • • Empower children with

Implications for Teachers • Education – With children • • • Empower children with knowledge Help children verbalize feelings For Families Cultural Competence Observation Supervision © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

 Reality Check—Helping Vulnerable Children to Become Resilient • Vulnerable child • • •

Reality Check—Helping Vulnerable Children to Become Resilient • Vulnerable child • • • genetic abnormalities malnutrition preterm birth prenatal stress drug exposure temperament © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

 Reality Check—Helping Vulnerable Children to Become Resilient (continued) Have more difficulty adapting –

Reality Check—Helping Vulnerable Children to Become Resilient (continued) Have more difficulty adapting – Parent may have more difficult time coping and attaching – Insecurely attached children may be more vulnerable due to – • • • poverty abandonment chaotic living environment © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

 Reality Check—Helping Vulnerable Children to Become Resilient (continued) • Resilient child often first

Reality Check—Helping Vulnerable Children to Become Resilient (continued) • Resilient child often first born – securely attached – has high intelligence level – • More likely to form close relationships that are trusting – have positive qualities from both sexes • • outgoing autonomous nurturing emotionally sensitive © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning

 Reality Check—Helping Vulnerable Children to Become Resilient (continued) • Teacher’s role – vulnerable

Reality Check—Helping Vulnerable Children to Become Resilient (continued) • Teacher’s role – vulnerable child • • – extra support responsive and stimulating care resilient child • • secure attachment Cheerleader-type support © 2007 by Thomson Delmar Learning