CHAPTER 13 MEASUREMENT SCALES ATTITUDE SCALING Attitude scaling

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CHAPTER 13 MEASUREMENT SCALES

ATTITUDE SCALING Attitude scaling is the process of assessing an attitudinal disposition using a number that represents a person’s score on an attitudinal continuum ranging from an extremely favorable disposition to an extremely unfavorable one.

SELECTING A MEASUREMENT SCALE RESEARCH OBJECTIVES • To measure characteristics of the participants • To use participants as judges of the objects or indicants presented to them

RESPONSE TYPES • Rating scales : Without a direct comparison • Ranking scales : Comparison and determination of order • Categorization : Categorize themselves • Sorting cards using criteria :

DATA PROPERTIES • Nominal data • Ordinal data • Interval data • Ratio data NUMBER OF DIMENSIONS • Unidimensional scale • Multidimensional scale

BALANCED OR UNBALANCED • Balanced rating scale : Equal number of choices • Unbalanced rating scale : Unequal number of choices FORCED OR UNFORCED CHOICES • Unforced-choice rating scale : “No opinion” option • Forced-choice rating scale : No such option

NUMBER OF SCALE POINTS • For low-involvement products : • For complex product : 3 point 5 to 11 point RATERS ERRORS • Error of central tendency • Error of leniency • Halo effect

RATING SCALES A rating scale is used when participants score an object or indicant without making a direct comparison to another object or attitude. Like-dislike Approve-indifferent-disapprove

1. SIMPLE CATEGORY (DICHOTOMOUS) SCALE (Data: Nominal) “I plan to purchase a laptop in the next 12 months. ” – Yes No

2. MULTIPLE-CHOICE, SINGLE-RESPONSE SCALE (Data: Nominal) “What newspaper do you read most often for financial news? ” Financial Express Prothom Alo Daily Star The Independence Other (specify_______ )

3. MULTIPLE-CHOICE, MULTIPLE-RESPONSE SCALE (Data: Nominal) “Check any of the sources you consulted when designing your new home. ” Online planning service Magazines Builders Developer’s models/plans Designer Architect Other (specify_______ )

4. LIKERT SCALE (Data: Interval) “The Internet is superior to traditional libraries for comprehensive searches. ” – Strongly agree (5) Agree Neither agree Nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree (4) (3) (2) (1)

5. SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE (Data: Interval) “Please mark (X) the blank that best indicates what the store means to you. ” – Powerful : ---: ---: Weak Unreliable : ---: ---: Reliable Modern : ---: ---: Old-fashioned Careful : ---: ---: Careless

6. NUMERICAL SCALE (Data: Ordinal or Interval) “Write a number from the scale next to each item. ” – Extremely favorable 5 4 3 2 Employees’ cooperation in teams Employees’ knowledge of tasks Employees’ planning effectiveness 1 Extremely unfavorable _____

7. MULTIPLE RATING LIST SCALE (Data: Interval) “Please indicate with circles how important or unimportant each service characteristic is. ” – Important Fast reliable repair Service at my location Knowledgeable technicians Service contract after warranty 7 7 Unimportant 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1

8. CONSTANT SUM SCALE (Data: Ratio) “The importance of bathing soap (dividing 100 units between)” – Price Fragrance Packaging Cleaning power Sum 100

9. STAPEL SCALE (Data: Ordinal or Interval) “Please evaluate how accurately each word or phase describes the department store” – +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 High quality -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 Agora +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 Poor service -5 -4 -3 -2 -1

10. GRAPHIC RATING SCALE (Data: Ordinal or Interval or Ratio) “Please tell me how much you like the Barbie doll by pointing to the face. ” – 1 2 3 4 5

RANKING SCALES A ranking scale scores an object or property by making a comparison determining order among two or more objects or properties.

1. PAIRED-COMPARISON SCALE (Data: Ordinal) “Among the four pairs of brands, for each pair, please indicate which one of the two brands of shampoo in the pair you would prefer for personal use. ” – ___Sunsilk ___Pantene ___Garnier ___Sunsilk ___Pert ___Garnier ___Pantene ___Pert ___Sunsilk

2. FORCED-RANKING SCALE (Data: Ordinal) “Rank the various brands of shampoo in order of preference. ” – Sunsilk Pantene Garnier Pert Clinic Plus Head & Shoulder ___ ___ ___

3. COMPARATIVE SCALE (Data: Ordinal) “Compared to your previous hair dryer’s performance, the new one is: ” – About the same Superior 1 2 3 Inferior 4 5