# Chapter 12 A Priori and Post Hoc Comparisons

- Slides: 58

Chapter 12 • A Priori and Post Hoc Comparisons • • Multiple t-tests Linear Contrasts Orthogonal Contrasts Trend Analysis Bonferroni t Fisher Least Significance Difference Studentized Range Statistic Dunnett’s Test

Linear Contrasts • You think that Freshman and Seniors will have different levels of happiness than Sophomores and Juniors

Linear Contrasts • Allows for the comparison of one group or set of groups with another group or set of groups

Linear Contrasts a = weight given to a group

Linear Contrasts 1 2 3 a 1 = 0, a 2 = 0, a 3 = 1, a 4 = -1 L = -23 a 1 = 1, a 2 = 0, a 3 = 0, a 4 = -1 L = -9 a 1 =. 5, a 2 = -. 5, a 3 = -. 5, a 4 =. 5 4 L = 80. 5 – 67 = 13. 5

SS Contrast • You can use the linear contrast to compute a SS contrast • SS contrast is like SS between • SS contrast has 1 df • SS contrast is like MS between

SS Contrast

SS Contrasts a 1 =. 5, a 2 = -. 5, a 3 = -. 5, a 4 =. 5 L = 80. 5 – 67 = 13. 5

SS Contrasts a 1 =. 5, a 2 = -. 5, a 3 = -. 5, a 4 =. 5 L = 80. 5 – 67 = 13. 5 n=6 L = 13. 5 Sum a 2 =. 52+-. 52+ -. 52 +. 52 = 1

SS Contrasts a 1 =. 5, a 2 = -. 5, a 3 = -. 5, a 4 =. 5 L = 80. 5 – 67 = 13. 5 n=6 L = 13. 5 Sum a 2 =. 52+-. 52+ -. 52 +. 52 = 1

SS Contrasts a 1 = 1, a 2 = -1, a 3 = -1, a 4 = 1 L = 161 – 134 = 27

SS Contrasts a 1 = 1, a 2 = -1, a 3 = -1, a 4 = 1 L = 161 – 134 = 27 n=6 L = 27 Sum a 2 = 12+-12+ -12 + 12 = 4

SS Contrasts a 1 = 1, a 2 = -1, a 3 = -1, a 4 = 1 L = 161 – 134 = 27 n=6 L = 27 Sum a 2 = 12+-12+ -12 + 12 = 4

F Test Note: MS contrast = SS contrast

F Test Fresh & Senior vs. Sophomore & Junior

F Test Fresh & Senior vs. Sophomore & Junior

F Test Fresh & Senior vs. Sophomore & Junior F crit (1, 20) = 4. 35

SPSS

Make contrasts to determine 1) If seniors are happier than everyone else? 2) If juniors and sophomores have different levels of happiness?

1) If seniors are happier than everyone else? a 1 = -1, a 2 = -1, a 3 = -1, a 4 = 3 L = 45 F crit (1, 20) = 4. 35

2) If juniors and sophomores have different levels of happiness? a 1 = 0, a 2 = -1, a 3 = 1, a 4 = 0 L = -10 F crit (1, 20) = 4. 35

Practice • To investigate the maternal behavior of lab rats, we move the rat pup a fixed distance from the mother and record the time required for the mother to retrieve the pup. We run the study with 5, 20, and 35 day old pups. 5 days 15 10 25 15 20 18 20 days 30 15 20 25 23 20 35 days 40 35 50 43 45 40 • Figure out if 5 days is different than 35 days. • SPSS #6 Homework (Do the ANOVA analysis in SPSS – use output to answer question above)

Chapter 12 • A Priori and Post Hoc Comparisons • • Multiple t-tests Linear Contrasts Orthogonal Contrasts Trend Analysis Bonferroni t Fisher Least Significance Difference Studentized Range Statistic Dunnett’s Test

Contrasts • Some contrasts are independent – Freshman vs. Sophomore (1, -1, 0, 0) – Junior vs. Senior (0, 0, 1, -1) • Some are not – Freshman vs. Sophomore, Junior, Senior (3, -1, -1) – Freshman vs. Sophomore & Junior (2, -1, 0)

Orthogonal Contrasts • If you have a complete set of orthogonal contrasts • The sum of SScontrast = SSbetween

Orthogonal Contrasts • 1) ∑ aj = 0 – Already talked about • 2) ∑ aj bj = 0 – Ensures contrasts of independent of one another • 3) Number of comparisons = K -1 – Ensures enough comparisons are used

Orthogonal Contrasts • ∑ a j bj = 0 • Fresh, Sophomore, Junior, Senior • (3, -1, -1) and (2, -1, 0) • (3*2)+(-1*-1) = 8

Orthogonal Contrasts • ∑ a j bj = 0 • Fresh, Sophomore, Junior, Senior • (-1, 1, 0, 0) & (0, 0, -1, 1) • (-1*0)+(-1*0)+(1*0) = 0 • *Note: this is not a complete set of contrasts (rule 3)

Orthogonal Contrasts • Lets go to five groups • What would the complete set contrasts be that would satisfy the earlier rules?

Orthogonal Contrasts • General rule • There is more than one right answer

Orthogonal Contrasts Fresh, Soph, Jun, Sen, Grad Fresh & Soph Fresh vs. Soph vs. Jun, Sen, & Grad Jun & Sen vs. Grad Jun vs. Sen

Orthogonal Contrasts Fresh, Soph, Jun, Sen, Grad Fresh & Soph Fresh vs. Soph vs. Jun, Sen, & Grad Jun & Sen vs. Grad Jun vs. Sen 2 limbs are created The elements on different limbs can not be combined with each other Elements on the same limbs can be combined with each other (making new limbs)

Orthogonal Contrasts Fresh, Soph, Jun, Sen, Grad Fresh & Soph Fresh vs. Soph vs. Jun, Sen, & Grad Jun & Sen vs. Grad Jun vs. Sen

Orthogonal Contrasts Fresh, Soph, Jun, Sen, Grad Fresh & Soph Fresh vs. Soph vs. Jun, Sen, & Grad Jun & Sen vs. Grad Jun vs. Sen

Orthogonal Contrasts Fresh, Soph, Jun, Sen, Grad Fresh & Soph Fresh vs. Soph vs. Jun, Sen, & Grad Jun & Sen vs. Grad Jun vs. Sen 3, 3, -2, -2

Orthogonal Contrasts Fresh, Soph, Jun, Sen, Grad Fresh & Soph Fresh vs. Soph vs. Jun, Sen, & Grad Jun & Sen vs. Grad Jun vs. Sen 3, 3, -2, -2 1, -1, 0, 0, 0

Orthogonal Contrasts Fresh, Soph, Jun, Sen, Grad Fresh & Soph Fresh vs. Soph vs. Jun, Sen, & Grad Jun & Sen vs. Grad Jun vs. Sen 3, 3, -2, -2 1, -1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, -2

Orthogonal Contrasts Fresh, Soph, Jun, Sen, Grad Fresh & Soph Fresh vs. Soph vs. Jun, Sen, & Grad Jun & Sen vs. Grad Jun vs. Sen 3, 3, -2, -2 1, -1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, -2 0, 0, 1, -1, 0

Orthogonal Contrasts • 1) ∑ aj = 0 • 2) ∑ aj bj = 0 • 3) Number of comparisons = K -1 • • 3, 3, -2, -2 1, -1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, -2 0, 0, 1, -1, 0

Orthogonal Contrasts • 1) ∑ aj = 0 • 2) ∑ aj bj = 0 • 3) Number of comparisons = K -1 • • 3, 3, -2, -2 1, -1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, -2 0, 0, 1, -1, 0 = = 0 0

Orthogonal Contrasts • • A) 3, 3, -2, -2 B) 1, -1, 0, 0, 0 C) 0, 0, 1, 1, -2 D) 0, 0, 1, -1, 0 • A, B = 0; A, C = 0; A, D = 0 • B, C = 0; B, D = 0 • C, D = 0

Orthogonal Contrasts • If you have a complete set of orthogonal contrasts • The sum of SScontrast = SSbetween

Compute a complete set of orthogonal contrasts for the following data. Test each of the contrasts you create for significance

Orthogonal Contrasts Fresh, Soph, Jun, Sen Fresh & Soph Fresh vs. Soph 1, 1, -1, 0, 0, 1, -1 vs. Jun & Sen Jun vs. Sen

1, 1, -1 L=1 SScontrast = 1. 5; F =. 014 1, -1, 0, 0 L=4 SScontrast = 48; F =. 48 0, 0, 1, -1 L = -23 SScontrast = 1587; F = 15. 72* F crit (1, 20) = 4. 35

SScontrast = 1. 5 SScontrast = 48 SScontrast = 1587 1. 5 + 48 + 1587 = 1636. 50 F crit (1, 20) = 4. 35

Orthogonal Contrasts • Why use them? • People like that they sum together • People like that they are independent • History • I would rather have contrasts based on reason then simply because they are orthogonal!

- A priori comparisons
- Red herring fallacy
- Post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy
- What is false analogy
- Logic in writing
- Post hoc ergo proter hoc
- Post hoc test
- Post hoc ergo procter hoc
- Sentetik a priori
- Is ea id chart
- Assumption of anova
- Omyl post hoc
- Multiple comparison test adalah
- Post hoc test bonferroni
- Post hoc fallacy definition
- Omyl post hoc priklad
- Testes post hoc
- Post hoc in the crucible
- Post hoc význam
- Post hoc in the crucible
- Analza
- A posteriori knowledge is
- Adjectives equality
- Adverb ending in -ly
- Comparisons of adjectives and adverbs
- Giudizi sintetici a priori
- Semantic nets
- What is a priori knowledge
- A priori
- Differenza tra certezza e verità
- Deduzione trascendentale
- A priori machine learning
- Priori vs posteriori
- Rodzaje cioek
- Autopojetyczny
- System prawa cechy
- Rafał chybiński
- Maciej pichlak
- Synthetic a priori judgments
- Idealismo kant
- Método dialéctico ejemplos
- Lex posterior derogat legi priori
- In situ cursiva
- Anggaran laba
- Examples of priori codes
- Language
- Ejemplos imperativo categorico
- Cual es el origen del conocimiento
- Syntetisk a priori
- Segmentazione psicografica
- Tú eres 1 of 1 (less) simpático que federico.
- Two figure of speech that involve comparison are
- Difficult comparative degree
- Making comparisons pictures
- Ejemplos de comparisons
- Comparison of equality ejemplos
- Comparative of equality
- Selection sort number of comparisons
- Tan tanto tanta tantos tantas