CHAPTER 11 Forestry and Resource Management
Battling Over Clayoquot’s Big Trees • Since 1993, environmentalists, loggers, and British Columbia’s government have struggled to find a balance between the ecological and economic roles of the forests in Clayoquot Sound. • Today, environmental advocates are working together with timber companies to develop and maintain sustainable logging practices. Talk About It What does sustainable resource use look like, and how can we achieve it?
Lesson 11. 1 Resource Management Overfishing has reduced populations of North Atlantic cod, an economically important fish, by 60% over the last 40 years.
Lesson 11. 1 Resource Management Renewable such as soil & • Resources are either _________, water, or __________, Nonrenewable such as fossil fuels. • The goal is sustainability— resource use that occurs only as _____________________. Fast as can be naturally replaced • Resource managers must balance _______ Human and ________ Ecological needs • Resource management is the managing of resource harvesting so that resources are not _________ Depleted
Lesson 11. 1 Resource Management Renewable Resource Management There are several renewable resources which are vital to our society. These include: Soil • _________ Fresh water • _________ • Wild _________ Animals • _________ Timber
Lesson 11. 1 Resource Management Renewable Resource Management Soil • Made by ______ Natural processes such as ________ Weathering & _______ Decomposition of Erosion of rocks & __________ organisms • The fertile top layer (_____) Topsoil is made slowly – one inch can take _______ Hundreds of years to form • Topsoil nourishes the plants we grow and forest communities so we must maintain the ________ of the existing Quality topsoil.
Lesson 11. 1 Resource Management Renewable Resource Management Fresh Water • Supplied by ______ Natural processes • The quality must be maintained since it is vital for Agriculture (we use most of ______ Drinking water and ________ Earth’s freshwater to water crops) Waterways & Wetlands are also crucial for • Clean _______________ wildlife and properly functioning ecosystems
Lesson 11. 1 Resource Management Renewable Resource Management Wild Animals • Animals have always been hunter food • _____ Game - animals that can be legally hunted • Nongame animals also provide benefits such as wildlife watching, ______________ Scientific Research and ecosystem services • Despite resource management, ______ Fishing has led to a drastic drop in fish populations New Technologies & Trawling • ____________________have caused success in fishing but problems for ecosystems.
Lesson 11. 1 Resource Management Renewable Resource Management Wild Animals Poaching continues to • _______ affect animals in illegal and unsustainable ways CITES has • Even though _____ reduced poaching of endangered animals, it still continues to be a problem
Lesson 11. 1 Resource Management Renewable Resource Management Timber • ___________ Wood from trees • We rely on timber for tons of things including building materials and paper • In ________ Developed nations most forests are slowly regrowing due to forest management • In __________ Undeveloped nations however, forests (including __________) are still disappearing Rain Forests
Lesson 11. 1 Resource Management Renewable Resource Management Three common approaches to resource management are: Maximum Sustainable Yield • ______________________________________ Ecosystem – Based Management Adaptive Management • ___________________ The use of different techniques is necessary due to the necessity of managing different _____ times under places at different _____ different political leadership _______.
Lesson 11. 1 Resource Management Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) • Goal: To harvest the _______ maximum amount of resources without _______ reducing the amount of future harvests • Population sizes are kept far below ____________, Carrying capacity enabling fast growth.
Lesson 11. 1 Resource Management Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) PROBLEMS • MSY can affect interactions species and between ______ alter entire ecosystems. • If a population stays below carrying capacity, it is not consuming, being consumed by or competing with other organisms. • Determining target population size is largely a matter of __________. Trial and Error
Lesson 11. 1 Resource Management Ecosystem-Based Forest Management • Goal: To harvest resources while ________ minimizing effects on the rest of the ecosystem Sensitive • Ecologically ______ areas are carefully monitored and protected and resources are harvested Selectively ________.
Lesson 11. 1 Resource Management Ecosystem-Based Forest Management PROBLEMS • Ecosystems are _______, complex so choosing which areas to ______ protect and which to _______ harvest is a challenge. • People have different opinions about what _______ would be best for the ecosystem
Lesson 11. 1 Resource Management Adaptive Forest Management • Goal: To gather ____ Data from areas managed in ______ Different ways, and develop a ________ Customized management plan based on the results • Management practices are Continually Monitored & _____________ Adjusted _____________ ASSESS PROBLEM Adjust Design Evaluate Implement Monitor
Lesson 11. 1 Resource Management Adaptive Forest Management PROBLEMS Large • Requires a _____ quantity of data to be collected and processed • Can be Time-Consuming __________ and may require changing _________ Established practices ASSESS PROBLEM Adjust Design Evaluate Implement Monitor
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources Forests, mostly boreal forests and tropical rain forests, cover about 30% of Earth’s land.
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources Value of Forests Boreal Forests • Most of the forests remaining are either _______ or Tropical _____________. Rain Forests
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources Value of Forests • Forests have both ______ Ecological & ______ Economic value. • Ecological value: • • • Habitat Biodiversity Erosion Purify Oxygen Provide _______ for organisms Source of _________ Prevent ________ water Store carbon, release _______
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources Value of Forests • Economic value: Timber Food Fuel • Timber for _______ and _____ • Source of _______ • Raw material for many __________ Pacific Yew Tree contains Taxol, a cancer fighting drug Medicines
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources Timber Harvesting Methods Three methods: Clear-Cutting 1) _______________ Seed-Tree or Shelterwood 2) _______________ Approach 3) _______________ Selection System Even-Aged or _________ Uneven-Aged • May result in ________ regrowth Biodiverse than • Even-aged regrowth tends to be less ________ uneven-aged regrowth.
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources Timber Harvesting Methods
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources 1) Clear-Cutting • Cutting down _____ All trees in a region, resulting in ____-aged stands of Even regrowth Abiotic • Changes _____ conditions in the area, including: Light Penetration ____________ Precipitation ____________ Wind _____________ Temperature _____________
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources 1) Clear-Cutting Benefit: • ____________ Cost Efficient Costs: • Entire communities usually displaced or _________ Destroyed Soil Erosion • Causes _________.
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources 2) Seed-Tree and Shelterwood Approaches • Seed-tree: _____ Small numbers of mature, healthy trees are left standing, to _____ the area. Reseed • Shelterwood: Involves leaving a few mature trees standing to provide Shelter for _______ Seedlings _______
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources 2) Seed-Tree and Shelterwood Approaches • Benefit: Less Damaging _______ than _________ Clear-Cutting • Cost: As with clear-cutting, leads to mostly ________ regrowth Even-Aged
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources 3) Selection Systems • Relatively ______ Few trees are cut at once under a selection system. Single • Selection can involve _____ or Widely spaced _____trees _________. Small Groups
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources Selection Systems • Benefits: • More ________, Biodiverse _____-aged growth Uneven • Less overall environmental _____ Damage • Costs: • Machinery disturbs _________. Forest Interior • ________ Expensive process Loggers • More dangerous for ______
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources Deforestation • Unlike timber harvesting, Deforestation replaces _________ forested areas with some other land use, such as _______ Commercial or ______ property. Residential • Ex. _______ Farming • Most negative effects in: • Tropical Regions • ____________ Loss of Biodiversity • Arid Regions • ____________. Risk of Desertification
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources Deforestation • Globally, deforestation adds CO 2 to Earth’s atmosphere for two reasons. CO 2 is released when trees are burned or decomposed 1) _____________________________ Less trees are left to use CO 2 for photosynthesis 2) _____________________________ • Increased levels of CO 2 in the atmosphere can increase the ___________ Global Warming Greenhouse Effect and can lead to ________
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources Deforestation in the United States Timber • Deforestation for ______ and _______ Farmland facilitated U. S. expansion. • Deforestation for _______ Buildings and ______ Fuel during the ______ Industrial Revolution. • By the early 1900 s, very little old-growth forest (forest that has ____________) Never Been Logged remained in the United States. • Today, there almost no old growth forests in North America Did You Know? Once old-growth forest is logged, it may need hundreds of years to regrow.
Lesson 11. 2 Forests and Their Resources Deforestation in Developing Nations • Timber from old-growth ___________ Tropical Rain Forests is a source of _____ income in developing nations. • Advanced _______ technology enables deforestation to faster than occur far _____ it has in the United States. The border bewteen Haiti (left) and the Dominican Republic (right) shows Haiti’s deforestation. • Deforestation of tropical rain forests has an enormously negative effect on global ___________. Species diversity
Lesson 11. 3 Forest Management Most logging in the U. S. takes place on private land, but timber companies are also allowed to harvest trees in National Forests under supervision by the U. S. Forest Service.
Lesson 11. 3 Forest Management U. S. National Forests • Each person in the United States uses 6200 cubic centimeters ___________ of wood every day • That is the same thing as using a _______ 50 ft tall tree every year
Lesson 11. 3 Forest Management U. S. National Forests • The ______________ National Forest System was established in 1905. Timber and to • It was originally set aside to grow trees for _____ Watersheds protect ________. • Today, the U. S. Forest Service manages the land for Timber, Recreation, Wildlife Habitats & Mining _________________________
Lesson 11. 3 Forest Management U. S. National Forests • Timber is harvested by _______________ Private Timber Companies • Forest Service Employees (____________) Government Employees plan and manage timber sales and build roads that provide access to the timber. Public Tax Dollars • Some people argue that ___________should not be used to help private companies profit.
Lesson 11. 3 Forest Management National Forest Management Act (1976) • Due to the fact that people wanted national forests to be used for many different things (________), Multiple Use the National Forest Management Act was passed. • The NFMA requires that Renewable resource _______ management plans be made for ____ Each national forest
Lesson 11. 3 Forest Management National Forest Management Act (1976) SUCCESS of NFMA Sustainably • Plants and animals have been managed _________ Declined in national forests • Logging has ______ • Tree growth has outpaced tree removal _____. 11 to 1 CHALLENGES of NFMA • The act is very susceptible to ___________. Political Influence • Ex. “Roadless” Rule
Lesson 11. 3 Forest Management Logging on Private Land • Most logging in the U. S. takes place on __________ Privately Owned tree plantations. • A tree plantation is typically an even-aged ________ Monoculture (large scale planting of a single crop) • Little _____ Habitat variety or ________. Biodiversity
Lesson 11. 3 Forest Management Logging on Private Land • Use of ____________ Private Plantations for timber protects National Forests Logged from being ________.
Lesson 11. 3 Forest Management Fire Policies • Fires can actually be Beneficial to some ______ ecosystems • Some plants will only Germinate (sprout) after _______ exposure to fire. Ex. Jack Pine • The Kirkland _______ Warbler only lives in young Jack Pines so it suffers when fires are _________. Suppressed
Lesson 11. 3 Forest Management Fire Policies • Fire Suppression: • _______ fire Negative effects on ecosystems that depend on _______ • Fuel for future fires accumulates (______________). Limbs, Sticks & Lead Litter • Suppressing small fires increases likelihood of larger, ________ Dangerous fires. • Ex. Yellowstone National Park (1988) & Southern CA (2009) • Prescribed Burns: • Carefully ________ Controlled burning helps to reduce fuel buildup and to restore ecosystems. • ______ Accidents Rarely burn out of control, but occasional ________ frighten the public.
Lesson 11. 3 Forest Management Healthy Forests Restoration Act (2003) • The goal of the act was to make forests less Fire Prone __________ • Encourages some Prescribed Burns ____________ • Promotes Salvage Logging __________— removal of small trees, Snags underbrush, and _____ (dead trees) by timber companies
Lesson 11. 3 Forest Management Healthy Forests Restoration Act (2003) Harmful by many scientists and environmental • Seen as ______ advocates • Salvage logging can slow forest _______ Regrowth and destroy ______—habitat for wildlife. Snags • Critics say that it makes it easier to _____________and does little to actually Log national forests _______ catastrophic fires Reduce
Lesson 11. 3 Forest Management Sustainable Forestry Products • Independent organizations certify that wood products are produced Sustainably _______. • The Forest Stewardship _________ Council (_______) FSC has the _____ standards and strictest most widely accepted certification process.
Lesson 11. 3 Forest Management Sustainable Forestry Products • Certified wood costs _______ More to produce, but will Supplied by be ________ timber companies if there is Demand _____. Home • Some ____ improvement stores carry certified wood because Consumers _______ have demanded it. Did You Know? In British Columbia, Canada, 70% of the annual timber harvest is certified.