CHAPTER 10 Urbanization Lesson 10 1 Land Use

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CHAPTER 10 Urbanization

CHAPTER 10 Urbanization

Lesson 10. 1 Land Use and Urbanization For the first time in history, there

Lesson 10. 1 Land Use and Urbanization For the first time in history, there are now more urban residents than rural residents.

Objectives • Differentiate between land cover and land use, and describe how people affect

Objectives • Differentiate between land cover and land use, and describe how people affect both • Explain how and where urbanization occurs • Describe the environmental impacts of urbanization

Lesson 10. 1 Land Use and Urbanization Land Cover and Land Use • Land

Lesson 10. 1 Land Use and Urbanization Land Cover and Land Use • Land cover: Vegetation and structures that cover land. • Land use: Human activities that occur on land • Humans change land cover, especially in urban areas. These changes have environmental and economic effects.

Land Cover and Environmental Science • Land cover may change as people settle there

Land Cover and Environmental Science • Land cover may change as people settle there • Scientist need information regarding land cover change to assess its impact on Earth’s ecosystems

Lesson 10. 1 Land Use and Urbanization Urban and Rural Areas • Urban: Land

Lesson 10. 1 Land Use and Urbanization Urban and Rural Areas • Urban: Land mostly covered with buildings and roads (includes suburbs) • Rural: Any other type of land use or land cover (includes forests, cropland, etc. )

Lesson 10. 1 Land Use and Urbanization • Occurs when people move from rural

Lesson 10. 1 Land Use and Urbanization • Occurs when people move from rural areas to cities • Cities are not new, but the enormous size of today’s cities is. More than 20 cities have at least 10 million residents.

Lesson 10. 1 Land Use and Urbanization The Rise of Cities • 80% of

Lesson 10. 1 Land Use and Urbanization The Rise of Cities • 80% of U. S. population is urban • Factors that contribute to the rise of urbanization include population growth and industrialization. • Most cities are located near a transportation route such as a large body of water, railroad, or highway. Chicago’s location on Lake Michigan helped it grow into a large and prosperous city. Did You Know? Since 1950, the world’s urban population has more than quadrupled. According to U. N. projections, it will double again by 2050.

Lesson 10. 1 Land Use and Urbanization Environmental Costs of Urbanization • Pollution: Increased

Lesson 10. 1 Land Use and Urbanization Environmental Costs of Urbanization • Pollution: Increased waste, industrial byproducts, noise pollution, light pollution • Urban area may pay another area to take their waste and pass the cost to residents unknowingly • Urban residents are exposed to heavy metals, chemical byproducts, smog, acid rain, etc. • Noise pollution: construction • Light pollution: street lights • Poor residents typically live in more polluted areas

Environmental Costs of Urbanization • Heat islands: Cities, several degrees warmer than surrounding areas,

Environmental Costs of Urbanization • Heat islands: Cities, several degrees warmer than surrounding areas, affect local weather and trap pollutants. • Partially caused by infrastructure which turns areas such as grassland into pavement • Pavement in cities can be 27 - 50° C hotter than surrounding air • Effect can be lessened by installing shade trees and roofs that reflect rather than absorb heat

Environmental Costs of Urbanization • Imported resources: Fossil fuels are burned to import food,

Environmental Costs of Urbanization • Imported resources: Fossil fuels are burned to import food, water, fuel, and raw materials • On the contrary, if the world’s 3. 3 billion urban residents were spread out evenly, it would require even more fossil fuel to transport resources to all of them

Lesson 10. 1 Land Use and Urbanization Environmental Benefits of Urbanization • Efficiency: Less

Lesson 10. 1 Land Use and Urbanization Environmental Benefits of Urbanization • Efficiency: Less fuel and resources needed to distribute goods and services to residents such as mail, healthcare, education, water, power, etc. • Land Preservation: Dense urban centers leave room for agriculture, wilderness, biodiversity, and privacy.

Environmental Benefits of Urbanization • Universities and research centers: Urban areas tend to foster

Environmental Benefits of Urbanization • Universities and research centers: Urban areas tend to foster education and innovation. • Leads to ideas that reduce negative environmental impacts such as renewable energy sources, ways of reducing pollution, means of recycling resources effectively • Wealthy educated people tend to buy more organic food • However, this wealth in urban areas causes them to have a larger ecological footprint than rural areas

Objectives Revisited • Differentiate between land cover and land use, and describe how people

Objectives Revisited • Differentiate between land cover and land use, and describe how people affect both • Explain how and where urbanization occurs • Describe the environmental impacts of urbanization

Lesson 10. 2 Sprawl In 1950, 65% of the U. S. population lived in

Lesson 10. 2 Sprawl In 1950, 65% of the U. S. population lived in urban (including suburban) areas, while 35% lived rurally. In 2010, 89% was urban and only 11% rural. Los Angeles, CA, is one the most sprawling U. S. cities.

Objectives • Describe the contribution to sprawl and its patterns • Explain the impacts

Objectives • Describe the contribution to sprawl and its patterns • Explain the impacts sprawl has on an area

Lesson 10. 2 Sprawl What Is Sprawl? • The spread of low-density urban or

Lesson 10. 2 Sprawl What Is Sprawl? • The spread of low-density urban or suburban development outward from a dense urban core • People move to suburbs for additional space and privacy, cheaper real estate, cleaner neighborhoods, less crimes, better schools, etc. • As people move from cities, they spend less money there and inner cities become poorer and unemployment and crime rise. • This causes even more people to move from the city and for the suburb itself to grow • Often, growth of suburban areas outpaces population growth because suburbs allow more space person than cities.

Lesson 10. 2 Sprawl Primary Contributors to Sprawl • Population growth • Each person

Lesson 10. 2 Sprawl Primary Contributors to Sprawl • Population growth • Each person lives on more land (increase in per capita land consumption) • On average, these two factors are equally important, but one may be more important than another in a specific city.

Sprawl of Las Vegas

Sprawl of Las Vegas

Lesson 10. 2 Sprawl Patterns of Sprawl • Uncentered Commercial (Strip) Development: • Businesses

Lesson 10. 2 Sprawl Patterns of Sprawl • Uncentered Commercial (Strip) Development: • Businesses arranged in long strip along roadway with no central community

Patterns of Sprawl • Low-Density Development: • Homes are located on large lots in

Patterns of Sprawl • Low-Density Development: • Homes are located on large lots in residential areas far from businesses

Patterns of Sprawl • Scattered Development: • Residential developments are built far from a

Patterns of Sprawl • Scattered Development: • Residential developments are built far from a city center and are not integrated with one another

Patterns of Sprawl • Sparse Street Network • Roads are far enough apart that

Patterns of Sprawl • Sparse Street Network • Roads are far enough apart that areas remain undeveloped

Lesson 10. 2 Sprawl Impacts of Sprawl • Transportation: Little to no public transportation

Lesson 10. 2 Sprawl Impacts of Sprawl • Transportation: Little to no public transportation for people on outskirts; people forced to drive cars • Pollution: Increased driving leads to pollution. • Public health: May promote inactivity, and by extension obesity and high blood pressure • Land Use: Low density development means less land left as open space, forests, and farms • Economics: Wealth tending to concentrate in suburbs, leaving urban areas poor with failing infrastructure

Objectives Revisited • Describe the contribution to sprawl and its patterns • Explain the

Objectives Revisited • Describe the contribution to sprawl and its patterns • Explain the impacts sprawl has on an area

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities More than 600 “new urbanist” communities are planned or

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities More than 600 “new urbanist” communities are planned or in construction across North America.

Objectives • Describe four different components of city planning • Explain the importance of

Objectives • Describe four different components of city planning • Explain the importance of mass transit options to a city and its residents • Explain the importance of open space to a livable city • Differentiate green buildings from conventional buildings • Discuss the progress toward sustainability some cities have made and its importance to the world

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities City Planning • City planners attempt to design cities

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities City Planning • City planners attempt to design cities that both work well (function) and look and feel appealing (beauty). • City planners advise on development options, transportation needs, public parks, etc. • City planners use geographic information systems (GIS) to store, manipulate, and view geographic data • Can layer maps and expose conflicts in proposed uses of land such as a processing plant too close to a school

City Planning • Zoning: Classification of land areas for different types of development and

City Planning • Zoning: Classification of land areas for different types of development and land use • An area can be mixed use or single use. • Involves restrictions on the use of private land; some people feel it violates freedoms • Can give home owner security in knowing what can an can not be built near them

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities Urban Growth Boundaries (UGBs) • A line drawn around

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities Urban Growth Boundaries (UGBs) • A line drawn around a city to separate urban areas from rural areas, with limited permission for development • Advantages: Saves 20% in infrastructure costs compared with sprawl; decreases per capita land use; promotes economic development within the city; preserve orchards, ranches, forest, farms, etc. • Disadvantages: Does not completely stop sprawl; UGB often needs to be expanded to accommodate population growth; limits rights of private landowners

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities Smart Growth • Focuses on economic and environmental approaches

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities Smart Growth • Focuses on economic and environmental approaches to avoiding sprawl • Builds “up, ” not “out” • Maintains open spaces by redeveloping existing urban areas, waterfronts, and industrial sites

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities “New Urbanism” • Seeks to design neighborhoods that minimize

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities “New Urbanism” • Seeks to design neighborhoods that minimize the need to drive; homes, businesses, schools all close together • Requires good public transportation systems • Sometimes impossible due to zoning restrictions that don’t allow business and residential to mix and limit density Did You Know? A 2004 study found that residents of sprawling areas were heavier on average for their height, and had increased instances of high blood pressure.

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities Transportation Options • Public transportation a key factor in

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities Transportation Options • Public transportation a key factor in the quality of urban life • Buses, subways, trains more efficient, less polluting than cars • Cities encourage mass transit with fuel taxes, vehicle taxes, rewarding carpoolers, and encouraging bicycle and bus use. Did You Know? Paris, France removed 200, 000 parking spaces to encourage the use of public transportation within the city.

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities Open Space • Provides greenery, beauty, freedom of movement,

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities Open Space • Provides greenery, beauty, freedom of movement, recreation opportunities • Includes parks, playgrounds, community gardens, greenways • Regulates climate, produces oxygen, filters air and water, provides habitat Did You Know? More than 24, 000 km of abandoned public rail line in the U. S. have been converted to trails for walking, jogging, and biking.

Open Space • Ecological restoration: practice of restoring native communities • Removal of invasive

Open Space • Ecological restoration: practice of restoring native communities • Removal of invasive species • Bring back original landscape • Greenways: strip of vegetated open space that connect parks or neighborhoods • Protect water quality • Increase attractiveness and property value • Serve as corridors between habitats

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities Green Building Design • The goals of a green

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities Green Building Design • The goals of a green building are to save energy and resources without sacrificing people’s comfort. • Motion and light sensitive heating and lighting, solar panels, climate control systems, use of natural light for heating and lighting purposes

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities Urban Sustainability Successes • Curitiba, Brazil • Efficient bus

Lesson 10. 3 Sustainable Cities Urban Sustainability Successes • Curitiba, Brazil • Efficient bus network • Recycling and environmental education provided • New York City • Plan underway to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve public transit, plant trees, clean up polluted sites, and improve open space access The tube at this Curitiba bus stop handles fare collection for passengers boarding or exiting.

Objectives Revisited • Describe four different components of city planning • Explain the importance

Objectives Revisited • Describe four different components of city planning • Explain the importance of mass transit options to a city and its residents • Explain the importance of open space to a livable city • Differentiate green buildings from conventional buildings • Discuss the progress toward sustainability some cities have made and its importance to the world