Chapter 10 Urbanization Lesson 1 Land Use and

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Chapter 10: Urbanization

Chapter 10: Urbanization

Lesson 1: Land Use and Urbanization

Lesson 1: Land Use and Urbanization

v. Land Cover and Land Use ØLand cover influences land use and humans change

v. Land Cover and Land Use ØLand cover influences land use and humans change both when they build urban areas. ØLand cover refers to the vegetation and manufactured structures that cover land § Ex: tree, crops, building, pavement, and water ØHuman activities that occur on land are directly related to the land are called land use. § Ex: farming, mining, residential development, and recreation

ØThe land cover of an area may change as people settle there and begin

ØThe land cover of an area may change as people settle there and begin to use the land ØLand cover scientists observe land cover and monitor how – and how rapidly – land cover changes. § Also study economic impacts, effect on water quality, invasive species, habitat loss, biodiversity loss, and climate change as they affect land cover.

ØUrban area is a category of land cover and land use that is mostly

ØUrban area is a category of land cover and land use that is mostly developed land covered mainly with buildings and roads that has a human population of 2500 or more. § Any other type of land use or land cover is considered rural area

v. Urbanization ØUrbanization occurs when people move out of rural areas toward areas with

v. Urbanization ØUrbanization occurs when people move out of rural areas toward areas with more or better jobs. ØThere have been cities throughout history, but today’s cities are much larger. More than 20 cities worldwide have more than 10 million residents.

ØSince 1950, the world’s urban population has more than quadrupled. § Urban populations are

ØSince 1950, the world’s urban population has more than quadrupled. § Urban populations are growing because the overall human population is growing, and because more people are moving from farms to cities than are moving from cities to farms. ØThis shift of population from the countryside to urban areas is called urbanization. § Began hundreds of years ago, around the time of the Industrial Revolution.

ØLocation is essential to the growth of an urban area § A moderate climate,

ØLocation is essential to the growth of an urban area § A moderate climate, central geography, and ease of transportation all help a small town grow into a large city

v. Urban Environmental Impacts ØCities have both negative and positive impacts on the environment.

v. Urban Environmental Impacts ØCities have both negative and positive impacts on the environment. § The type of impact depends on how we use resources, produce goods, transport materials, and deal with waste.

ØPollution § Urban areas export wastes, passively through pollution, or they export wastes actively

ØPollution § Urban areas export wastes, passively through pollution, or they export wastes actively through trade such as paying another area to take their garbage. • Transfer the environmental costs of their activities to another region

§ Urban residents are exposed to heavy metals, chemical byproducts of industrial processes, and

§ Urban residents are exposed to heavy metals, chemical byproducts of industrial processes, and chemicals from motor-vehicle engines and manufactured products. • Airborne pollutants can cause smog and acid precipitation

§ Noise pollution consists of undesired background noise § Light pollution describes the way

§ Noise pollution consists of undesired background noise § Light pollution describes the way that city lights brighten the night sky, obscuring stars and planets

ØHeat Islands § Infrastructure is made up of the facilities, services, and installations needed

ØHeat Islands § Infrastructure is made up of the facilities, services, and installations needed for the functioning of a community • Ex: transportation, communication systems, water, power, and schools § The building of infrastructure makes surfaces that were moist and permeable (ground) into dry and impermeable surfaces (pavement) which causes a heat island.

 • A heat island is an area in which the temperature is several

• A heat island is an area in which the temperature is several degrees higher than that of the surrounding area. ♦ Affects local weather ♦ Collect polluting substances over a city

ØImported Resources § Cities have to import nearly all the resources their residents and

ØImported Resources § Cities have to import nearly all the resources their residents and business owners need from areas outside the city. § Long-distance transportation of resources and goods to and from urban areas requires a great deal of fossil fuel, but if people were evenly scattered it would probably require more fossil fuel to allow people the same access to resources and goods.

ØEfficiency § People in a city live close together, which reduces the amount of

ØEfficiency § People in a city live close together, which reduces the amount of fuel and other resources needed to deliver resources and goods. § The high population density of cities allows for the efficient distribution of many services – healthcare, education, power, and public transportation.

ØEcological Footprints § The average urban resident has a larger ecological footprint than the

ØEcological Footprints § The average urban resident has a larger ecological footprint than the average rural resident. § The education and research centers present in urban areas can lead to ideas that reduce negative environmental impacts.

ØLand Preservation § Because people are packed densely together in cities, more land outside

ØLand Preservation § Because people are packed densely together in cities, more land outside cities is left undeveloped. § This allows for land to be used for agriculture, wilderness, biodiversity, and privacy.

Lesson 2: Sprawl

Lesson 2: Sprawl

v. How Sprawl Occurs ØAs people move from cities to suburbs, population growth and

v. How Sprawl Occurs ØAs people move from cities to suburbs, population growth and increased land consumption per capita contribute to sprawl. ØSprawl = the spread of low-density urban or suburban development outward from an urban center.

ØTwo primary factors contribute to sprawl § Population growth § Increased per capita land

ØTwo primary factors contribute to sprawl § Population growth § Increased per capita land consumption – each person is living on more land ØThe prime reason per capita land consumption has increased is that most people like having some space and privacy and dislike congestion. ØHighways and telecommunications allow workers greater flexibility to live farther from jobs.

ØPatterns of Sprawl § Uncentered commercial (strip) development – businesses are arranged in a

ØPatterns of Sprawl § Uncentered commercial (strip) development – businesses are arranged in a long strip along a roadway, with no central community. § Low-density single-use residential development – homes are located on large lots in residential areas far from businesses

§ Scattered (or leapfrog) development – residential developments are built far from a city

§ Scattered (or leapfrog) development – residential developments are built far from a city center and are not integrated with one another § Sparse street network – roads are far enough apart that areas remain undeveloped, but not far enough apart for these areas to function as natural areas or recreational areas

Sprawl vsparse street network

Sprawl vsparse street network

Sprawl v. Scattered development

Sprawl v. Scattered development

Sprawl v. Strip development

Sprawl v. Strip development

Sprawl v. Low-density development

Sprawl v. Low-density development

Sprawl v. Strip development

Sprawl v. Strip development

Sprawl v. Scattered development

Sprawl v. Scattered development

Sprawl vsparse street network

Sprawl vsparse street network

Sprawl v. Low-density development

Sprawl v. Low-density development

Sprawl v. Strip development

Sprawl v. Strip development

Sprawl v. Low-density development

Sprawl v. Low-density development

v Impacts of Sprawl ØSprawl affects the transportation, pollution, public health, land use, and

v Impacts of Sprawl ØSprawl affects the transportation, pollution, public health, land use, and economics of an area. ØMost studies show that sprawl limits transportation options, forcing people to buy and drive their own cars. § Results in more accidents, and greater use of fossil fuels ØIncreased carbon dioxide emissions from vehicles contribute to air pollution and global climate change. ØMotor oil and road salt also pose risks to ecosystems and human health

ØSome research suggests that sprawl promotes physical inactivity (driving instead of walking or biking),

ØSome research suggests that sprawl promotes physical inactivity (driving instead of walking or biking), resulting in obesity and high blood pressure. ØMore land is used for buildings and roads while less is left as forests, fields, farmland, or ranchland. ØWhen people move out of city center, their real-estate taxes no longer contribute to the infrastructure of the city, but go instead to building new infrastructure outside the city.

Lesson 3: Sustainable Cities

Lesson 3: Sustainable Cities

v. City Planning ØCity planners use many tools in the attempt to make urban

v. City Planning ØCity planners use many tools in the attempt to make urban areas more livable. ØCity planning is the attempt to design cities so as to maximize their functionality and beauty. § Grew in importance throughout the 1900 s as urban populations grew beyond the available jobs and wealthier residents fled to the suburbs.

ØA geographic information system (GIS) is a computerized system for storing, manipulating, and viewing

ØA geographic information system (GIS) is a computerized system for storing, manipulating, and viewing geographical data. § Can layer multiple maps so city planners can see a combined map with all the different types of information – roads, parks, bodies of water, etc.

ØOne way that planners put their decisions into practice is through zoning, the practice

ØOne way that planners put their decisions into practice is through zoning, the practice of classifying areas for different types of development and land use. § Controls what can be built where § Involves a government restriction on the use of private land limits personal property rights

ØAn urban growth boundary (UGB) is a line that city planners draw on a

ØAn urban growth boundary (UGB) is a line that city planners draw on a map to separate urban areas from areas the city would prefer remain rural. § Goals = concentrating development, preventing sprawl, and preserving orchards, ranches, forests, and working farms. § Promotes building up, not out

ØSmart growth is a philosophy of urban growth that focuses on economic and environmental

ØSmart growth is a philosophy of urban growth that focuses on economic and environmental approaches that lead to sustainable growth and the avoidance of sprawl. § Aims to maintain open spaces by developing and revitalizing existing urban areas, waterfronts, and former industrial sites – redevelopment.

Ø“New Urbanism” approach seeks to design neighborhoods with homes, businesses, and schools close together,

Ø“New Urbanism” approach seeks to design neighborhoods with homes, businesses, and schools close together, so that most of a person’s needs can be met without driving. § Usually near public transit systems § Mimic the urban neighborhoods that existed before suburbs became popular

v. Transportation Options ØTransportation options are vital to livable cities. ØAs long as an

v. Transportation Options ØTransportation options are vital to livable cities. ØAs long as an urban area has been planned in a way that can support mass transit and is large enough to support the infrastructure, mass transit is cheaper, more energy-efficient, and cleaner than roadways filled with cars.

ØTo encourage mass transit and discourage urban car use, city governments can raise fuel

ØTo encourage mass transit and discourage urban car use, city governments can raise fuel taxes, tax fuelinefficient modes of transportation, reward carpoolers with carpool lanes, and encourage bicycle use and bus riding. ØThe most used train systems are the extensive heavy rail systems in America’s largest cities, such as New York’s subways; Washington, D. C. ’s Metro; the T in Boston; and the San Francisco area’s BART, each of which carries more than one fourth of each city’s daily commuters.

v. Open Space ØParks and open space are key elements of livable cities. ØNatural

v. Open Space ØParks and open space are key elements of livable cities. ØNatural lands, public parks, and open space provide greenery, scenic beauty, freedom of movement, and places for recreation. § Also keep ecological processes functioning by regulating climate, producing oxygen, filtering air and water pollutants, and providing habitat for wildlife.

ØIn urban America around the late 1800 s politicians and citizens alike began to

ØIn urban America around the late 1800 s politicians and citizens alike began to desire ways to make their crowded and dirty cities more livable. U. S. cities began to establish public parks. § Ecological restoration is the practice of restoring native communities ØEven small spaces can make a big difference – playgrounds for children to be active, community gardens where people can grow vegetables and flowers in urban settings.

ØGreenways are strips of vegetated open space that connect parks or neighborhoods § Help

ØGreenways are strips of vegetated open space that connect parks or neighborhoods § Help protect water quality § Increase property value § Serve as corridors between habitats for wildlife § Decrease habitat fragmentation

v. Green Building Design ØThe goal of a green building is to save energy

v. Green Building Design ØThe goal of a green building is to save energy and other resources without sacrificing people’s comfort. ØSustainable architecture has been successful in residences, and commercial and industrial buildings all over the world.

v. Urban Sustainability Successes ØThere has been promising progress toward urban sustainability. ØCuritiba, Brazil

v. Urban Sustainability Successes ØThere has been promising progress toward urban sustainability. ØCuritiba, Brazil § Has a high efficient and well-used bus transit networks, job training for the poor, and free healthcare

ØNew York City § Pla. NYC 2030 is a 127 -item program that aims

ØNew York City § Pla. NYC 2030 is a 127 -item program that aims to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, improve mass transit, plant trees, clean up polluted lands and rivers, and improve access to parks and greenways. • Has made significant progress since 2007