CHAPTER 10 THE BAROQUE ORCHESTRA 2009 The Mc

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CHAPTER 10 THE BAROQUE ORCHESTRA © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights

CHAPTER 10 THE BAROQUE ORCHESTRA © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1

The Orchestra The orchestra began in the baroque period Orchestras first used to accompany

The Orchestra The orchestra began in the baroque period Orchestras first used to accompany singers Royalty and wealthy families hired musicians and composer-conductors to provide instrumental music Originally orchestras consisted of only bowed stringed instruments © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2

Water Music Handel composed Water Music for King George II of England in 1717

Water Music Handel composed Water Music for King George II of England in 1717 Composed to be performed for the king and guests on a barge on the Thames River Water Music is can be divided into three suites of dances Performance of this work on the king’s barge did not include the harpsichord because of limited space © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3

Listening Guide: “Minuet” from Water Music by George Frideric Handel Orchestral suite Homophonic texture

Listening Guide: “Minuet” from Water Music by George Frideric Handel Orchestral suite Homophonic texture ABA form (minuet and trio) Triple meter Strings, horns, oboes, bassoon, harpsichord Listening Guide Example from CD 3, track 19, p. 103 Listen to the entire example : Notice that only strings and continuo play the middle trio section © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4

The Concerto From the Latin word concertare, which means to fight or contend Concertos

The Concerto From the Latin word concertare, which means to fight or contend Concertos developed out of the interest in contrasting soft and loud sounds Composers applied this idea in music by contrasting dissimilarly sized groups of instruments Types of concertos Concerto grosso (small solo group & orchestra) Solo concerto (solo instrument & orchestra) © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5

Concerto Grosso Multi-movement work contrasting a small group of solo instruments (concertino) and full

Concerto Grosso Multi-movement work contrasting a small group of solo instruments (concertino) and full orchestra (ripieno) Three-movement structure (fast- slow- fast) commonly used Ritornello (Italian for “return” or “repetition”) Common in concerto grosso; thematic material for ripieno returns between concertino passages © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Read “The Live Experience: Playing Solos in Baroque Music” (p. 104) about musicians inserting personalities into performances 6

The Brandenburg Concertos Bach composed music for court orchestras, particularly at Anhalt. Cöthen Three

The Brandenburg Concertos Bach composed music for court orchestras, particularly at Anhalt. Cöthen Three follow concerto grosso style of concertino and ripieno groups Six works dedicated to Christian Ludwig, the Margrave of Brandenburg Bach created timbre contrast within the concertino as well as between concertino and ripieno © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7

Listening Guide: Brandenburg Concerto no. 5, first movement by JS Bach Concerto grosso Allegro

Listening Guide: Brandenburg Concerto no. 5, first movement by JS Bach Concerto grosso Allegro tempo Ritornello form (typical for first movement) Quadruple meter Concertino: flute, violin, harpsichord Ripieno: string orchestra with continuo Listening Guide Excerpt from CD 3, Tracks 20 -22, pp. 105 -106 Listen to the opening of this movement: The ripieno plays the ritornello at the beginning and end of the excerpt The concertino plays contrasting music in between © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8

The Harpsichord Shaped like a small grand piano Metal strings are plucked Crisp tone

The Harpsichord Shaped like a small grand piano Metal strings are plucked Crisp tone quality Commonly used in baroque orchestras © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9

Ripieno Concerto Ripieno plays without a solo instrument or group Solo Concerto Desire for

Ripieno Concerto Ripieno plays without a solo instrument or group Solo Concerto Desire for more contrast led to solo concerto: multi-movement work in which concertino consists of only one instrument prolific composer of solo concertos: Antonio Vivaldi © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10

Antonio Vivaldi Violinist father taught him to play violin Born in Venice, Italy and

Antonio Vivaldi Violinist father taught him to play violin Born in Venice, Italy and died in Vienna, Austria Worked as violin teacher and composer at a girl’s orphanage; orphanage’s orchestra became famous Interested in priesthood and music, became known as the Red Priest because of his red hair 1678 -1741 Composed solo concertos each week for Sunday concerts at the orphanage Composed over 500 concertos, many sonatas, operas and cantatas © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11

Le Quattro Stagione (The Four Seasons) The Four Seasons is a set of 4

Le Quattro Stagione (The Four Seasons) The Four Seasons is a set of 4 violin concertos and is one of Vivaldi’s bestknown works The Four Seasons is an early example of baroque program music: Each concerto is named for a season and a sonnet about the season introduces the music instrumental music associated with a nonmusical idea stated in the title or program Music depicts seasonal sounds: birds singing, streams murmuring, thunder and lightning, leaves rustling © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12

Featured Listening: “Spring, ” first movement, from The Four Seasons, by Vivaldi Solo concerto

Featured Listening: “Spring, ” first movement, from The Four Seasons, by Vivaldi Solo concerto Allegro tempo Ritornello form (typical for first movement) Quadruple meter Concertino: solo violin(s) Ripieno: string orchestra with continuo Listening Guide Excerpt from CD 1, Tracks 10 -14, pp. 107 -108 Listen to an excerpt from this movement: The concertino plays trills like bird calls followed by the ripieno playing the ritornello theme © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13

Listening Guide: “Spring, ” second and third movements, from The Four Seasons, by Vivaldi

Listening Guide: “Spring, ” second and third movements, from The Four Seasons, by Vivaldi Second Movement Solo concerto Largo tempo Triple meter Solo violin, first and second violins, viola Provides contrast with first movement Hear these movements on CD 3, Tracks 23 -24, pp. 109 -110 Third Movement Solo concerto Allegro tempo Ritornello form Quadruple meter Solo violin, string orchestra, continuo Dance-like © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14

Characteristics of Baroque Music Texture Homophonic, polyphonic Cantata Small Vocal Works Tonality Major-minor system

Characteristics of Baroque Music Texture Homophonic, polyphonic Cantata Small Vocal Works Tonality Major-minor system with dissonance used for special effects Harpsichord, organ, lute, orchestras made up of bowed strings with some woodwinds and/or brass instruments with basso continuo Musical Instruments Rhythm Measured Fantasia, prelude, toccata, fugue, suite Solo Instrumental Music Singing Style Monody, recitative, aria, arioso, large-scale choral works Sonata da chiesa, sonata da camera, concerto grosso, solo concerto Group Instrumental Music Large Vocal Works Opera, oratorio, Passion, Mass Activity, contrasts, and much improved embellishment to decorate the musical lines Other Features © 2009, The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15