- Slides: 9
Chapter 10 Section 2: Building A Muslim Empire.
Section 2: Building A Muslim Empire �Successor to Muhammad In 632 Abu Bakr became the first Caliph. ▪ United all Arab tribes as Muslims. Once united the Muslims defeated the Persians. ▪ And Parts of the Byzantine empire. �Issues arise. After Muhammad’s Death issues arose between Sunni and Shiite Muslims.
Section 2: Building A Muslim Empire �Shiites Believe that Muhammad’s successors must be descendants of his son-in-law, Ali They should also be religious leaders and interpret the Quran. �Sunnis Believe that male Muslims from Muhammad’s tribe can lead without performing religious functions.
Section 2: Building A Muslim Empire �Today About 90% of Muslims are Sunni. Both groups believe in the same God, the Quran, and the five pillars of Islam. They differ in religious practices, laws, and rules about daily life. A third group the Sufis, meditate and fast to gain communion with God.
Section 2: Building A Muslim Empire �Sunni Umayyad In the 700’s, a powerful clan set up the Sunni Umayyad caliphate. They directed conquest that extended the Muslim empire. ▪ From Spain to the Indus River Valley. The empire last until 750. They imposed a special tax on non-Muslims. ▪ But Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians could still worship.
Section 2: Building A Muslim Empire �Sunni Umayyad Cont. Later they faced economic tensions and opposition from those that did not have same privileges as Muslims. After Capturing Damascus in 750. ▪ Strong support from Shiites and non-Arabs, Abu al. Abbas founded the Abbasid dynasty.
Section 2: Building A Muslim Empire �Abbasid Dynasty Ended conquest. Supported Education and learning. Enjoyed a golden age with a more efficient government. Capital was in Baghdad. Mosques with minarets graced the cities. Markets sold good from afar.
Section 2: Building A Muslim Empire �Separate State In Spain the Umayyads established a separate state. Muslims ruled parts of Spain until 1492. Were tolerant of other religions, supported scholars, and constructed grand buildings.
Section 2: Building A Muslim Empire �Empires Decline As the empire declined, independent dynasties took over. Seljuk Turks gained power and their sultan controlled Baghdad by 1055. ▪ Kept the Abbasid caliph as a figurehead. In 1216 the Mongols attacked across SW Asia. ▪ Burned Baghdad in 1258 ending the Abbasid dynasty.