- Slides: 55
Chapter 10 Personality
Personality • Personality – Psychological qualities that bring continuity to an individual’s behavior in different situations and at different times.
Psychodynamic Theories • Psychoanalysis– Freud’s system of treatment for mental disorders. -Identifies unconscious thoughts and emotions and brings them to consciousness.
Psychoanalytic Theory • Freud’s theory that relates personality to the interplay of conflicting forces within the individual.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Unconscious – Psychic domain of which the individual is not aware, but which is the storehouse of repressed impulses, drives, and conflicts that are unavailable to consciousness.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Drives and instincts Eros Libido Thanatos
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Drives and instincts Eros Libido Thanatos Drives people toward acts that are sexual, life-giving, and creative.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Drives and instincts Eros Libido Thanatos Drives people to experience sensual pleasure.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Drives and instincts Eros Libido Thanatos Drives people toward aggressive and destructive behaviors.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Personality structure Id Superego Ego
• ID – Needs, drives, instincts, and repressed material. • EGO – In touch with reality; strives to meet the demands of the id and superego in “socially acceptable ways. ” • SUPEREGO – Conscience; counteracts the socially undesirable impulses of the id.
The Unconscious Mind • ID – PLEASURE PRINCIPLE • EGO – REALITY PRINCIPLE • SUPEREGO – MORAL PRINCIPLE
Freud’s Model of the Mind
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Psychosexual stages – Successive, instinctive patterns of associating pleasure with stimulations of specific bodily areas at different times of life. Oral Stage Anal Stage Phallic Stage Latency Genital Stage
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Oedipus complex – According to Freud, a largely unconscious process whereby boys displace an erotic attraction toward their mother to females of their own age and, at the same time, identify with their fathers.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Identification – The mental process by which an individual tries to become like another person, especially the same-sex parent.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Penis envy– According to Freud, the female desire to have a penis – a condition that usually results in their attraction to males.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Fixation– Occurs when psychosexual development is arrested at an immature stage. Oral Fixations
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Ego defense mechanisms – Largely unconscious mental strategies employed to reduce the experience of conflict or anxiety. 8 Defense Mechanisms: – Repression – Denial – Rationalization – Reaction formation – Displacement – Regression – Sublimation – Projection
1. Repression: excluding unacceptable thoughts from awareness. 2. Denial: avoiding a difficult situation by pretending it doesn’t exist. 3. Rationalization: giving socially acceptable reasons for unacceptable behaviors. 4. Reaction formation: acting the opposite of how you actually feel.
5. Displacement: shifting your reaction from the real source of your distress. 6. Regression: adopting childlike behaviors that were effective ways of dealing with stress as a child. 7. Sublimation: gratifying sexual or aggressive desires in ways that are socially acceptable. 8. Projection: attributing our own unconscious desires to other people.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory • Projective tests – Personality assessment instruments based on Freud’s concept of projection. – Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – Rorschach inkblot technique
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) A projective test requiring subjects to make up stories that explain ambiguous pictures.
Rorschach Inkblot Test A projective test requiring subjects to describe what they see in a series of 10 inkblots.
NEO-FREUDIANS • • Carl Jung Karen Horney Alfred Adler Gordon Allport Abraham Maslow Carl Rogers Albert Bandura
Carl Jung • Personal unconscious – Portion of the unconscious corresponding roughly to Freud’s id. • Collective unconscious – Jung’s addition to the unconscious, involving a reservoir for instinctive “memories” including the archetypes, which exist in all people.
Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious • Archetypes Animus Anima Shadow
Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious • Archetypes Animus The male archetype Anima The female archetype Shadow
Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious • Archetypes Animus Anima Shadow Archetype representing the destructive and aggressive tendencies we don’t want to recognize in ourselves.
Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious • Introversion – The Jungian dimension that focuses on inner experience– one’s own thoughts and feelings, making the introvert less outgoing and sociable than the extrovert. • Extraversion – The Jungian personality dimension involving turning one’s attention outward, toward others.
Karen Horney – Thought Freud exaggerated the role of sex drives in human behavior and misunderstood sexual motives of women. – Developed feminine psychology.
Karen Horney: A Feminist Voice in Psychodynamic Psychology • Basic anxiety – An emotion that gives a sense of uncertainty and loneliness in a hostile world and can lead to maladjustment. • Neurotic needs – Signs of neurosis in Horney’s theory; these ten needs are normal desires carried to a neurotic extreme.
Horney’s 10 Neurotic Needs 1. Need for affections and approval 2. Need for a partner; dread of being left alone 3. Need to restrict one’s life and remain inconspicuous 4. Need for power and control over others 5. Need to exploit others 6. Need for recognition or praise 7. Need for personal admiration 8. Need for personal achievement 9. Need for self-sufficiency and independence 10. Need for perfection
Alfred Adler Individual Psychology • Inferiority Complex – An exaggerated feeling of weakness and inadequacy which stems from childhood. • Compensation – Making up for one’s real or imagined deficiencies.
Humanistic Theories • Humanistic Theories include: – Gordon Allport’s trait theory – Abraham Maslow’s self-actualizing personality – Carl Roger’s fully functioning person
Gordon Allport and the Beginnings of Humanistic • Traits – Stable personality characteristics that are presumed to exist within the individual and guide his or her thoughts and actions under various conditions. – Central traits form the basis of personality. – Secondary traits include preferences and attitudes. – Cardinal traits define peoples lives.
Abraham Maslow and the Healthy Personality • Selfactualizing personalities – Healthy individuals who have met their basic needs and are free to be creative and fulfill their potentials.
Carl Rogers’s Fully Functioning Person • Fully functioning person – Term for a healthy, self-actualizing individual, who has a self-concept that is both positive and congruent with reality.
Carl Rogers’s Fully Functioning Person • Phenomenal field – Our psychological reality, composed of one’s perceptions and feelings. • Unconditional positive regard – Love or caring without conditions attached.
Evaluating Humanistic Theories • Positive psychology – Movement within psychology focusing on the desirable aspects of human functioning, as opposed to an emphasis on psychopathology.
Bandura: Social Learning • Observational learning – Process of learning new responses by watching the behavior of others. Bo. Bo Doll Experiment
Reciprocal Determinism Cognition Environment Behavior • Process in which the person, situation, and environment mutually influence each other.
Locus of Control • Locus of control – An individual’s sense of where his or her life influences originate. – Internal vs. External • Julian Rotter
What Persistent Patterns are Found in Personality? Another approach describes personality in terms of stable patterns known as temperaments, traits, and types.
Personality (Hippocrates) • Humors – Four bodily fluids that, according to ancient theory, control personality by their relative abundance. Blood (cheerful) Phlegm (cool) Black Bile (depressed) Yellow Bile (angry)
Personality and Temperament • Temperament – Basic, pervasive personality dispositions that are apparent in early childhood and establish the tempo and mood of an individual’s behaviors.
Patterns in Personality • The “Big Five” traits 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. • Big 5 - Psych Central Openness to experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Cattell identified 16 personality factors
Assessing Traits • NEO-PI (Big Five Inventory) • MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) • Reliability and validity are important attributes of good psychological tests!
The MMPI-2 • 567 True/False Questions • Originally developed to identify psychiatric disorders. Sample Questions: • I have a good appetite. • Sometimes I like to stir up some excitement. • I work under a great deal of tension. • I often think people are watching me. Description What is Measured No. of Items Hypochondriasis Concern with bodily symptoms 32 Depression Depressive Symptoms 57 Hysteria Awareness of problems and vulnerabilities 60 Psychopathic Deviate Conflict, struggle, anger, respect for society's rules 50 Masculinity/Femini nity Stereotypical masculine or feminine interests/behaviors 56 Paranoia Level of trust, suspiciousness, sensitivity 40 Psychasthenia Worry, anxiety, tension, doubts, obsessiveness 48 Schizophrenia Odd thinking and social alienation 78 Hypomania Level of excitability 46 Social Introversion People orientation 69
Traits and the Person-Situation Debate • Person-situation controversy – Theoretical dispute concerning the relative contribution of personality factors and situational factors in controlling behavior.
Patterns in Personality • Type – Especially important dimensions or clusters of traits that are not only central to a person’s personality but are found with essentially the same pattern in many people. – Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
The Myers-Briggs Test Characterizes personality on 4 different scales: 1. Extraversion vs Introversion 2. Intuition vs Sensing 3. Feeling vs Thinking 4. Judging vs Perceiving
Implicit Personality Theories • Implicit personality theories Assumptions about personality that are held by people to simplify the task of understanding others. • Fundamental attribution error (FAE) Assumption that another person’s behavior (especially undesirable behavior) is the result of a flaw in the personality, rather than in the situation.
Personality Across Cultures • Assumptions people make vary widely across cultures–depending especially on whether the culture emphasizes individualism or collectivism. • Other cultural differences involve: – Status of different age groups and sexes – Romantic love – Stoicism – Locus of control – Thinking vs. feeling